Carbohydrates

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  • Created by: kbowler12
  • Created on: 16-10-16 17:00
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  • Carbs
    • Monosaccharides
      • Ranges from 3 to 6 carbon atoms
      • General formula is (CH2O)n, where n is a number between 3 and 7
      • They are all...
        • Soluble in water
        • Sweet tasting and form crystals
        • Grouped according to the number of atoms (triose, pentose or hexose sugars)
      • Bond with a condensation reaction, forming a glycosidic bond, which can be broken by hydrolysis
    • Diasaccharide
      • 2 monosaccharides are condensed together
      • 1 monosaccharide loses 1 H atom, and the other loses an OH group
      • Condensation
        • Loss of H2O to form an 1,4-glycosidic bond
      • Hydrolysis
        • Requires 1 H2O to supply H and OH to the sugars
      • Reactions
        • Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose
        • Glucose + Glucose = Maltose
        • Glucose + Galactose = Lactose
    • Polysaccharides
      • Not sugars (Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose)
      • Used to store glucose
        • Dissolve and affect the osmotic potential of the cell, making it too concentrated
      • To retrieve glucose, hydrolysis breaks down the molecule

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