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  • carbohydrates
    • monomers and polymers
      • monomers are many small molecules: small basic molecular unit
      • polymers are one large molecule: large complex chain of molecules made from multiple monomers
    • monosaccharides (simple sugar units)
      • eg glucose - hexose sugar made of 6 carbon atoms
        • forms a stable ring structure
          • 6 sided structure known as the pyranose ring
        • used in respiration as an energy source
      • other monosccharides include:ribose and deoxyribose (pentose sugers) and galactose and fructose (hexose sugars)
      • properties: contain between 3 and 6 carbons, are sweet tasting and can form crystals
    • disaccharides
      • fomrmed from two monosaccharides and joined via glycosidic bonds
        • eg glucose + glucose is maltose, glucose + galalactose is lactose and glucose + fructose is sucrose
    • polysaccharides
      • may be 1000's of monosaccharides joined together. these are not sugars
      • storage polysaccharides
        • not very soluble in water
        • inactive
        • compact
        • stratch
          • amylose
            • long straight chains
              • unbranching polymer with 1,4 glycosidic bonds
                • slight angle means spiral so is more compact
                  • 2000-5000 monosaccharides
          • amylopectin
            • branched molecule
              • branches polymer with 1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds
          • can be broken down into glucose and used for repipiration
        • glycogen
          • similar to amylopectin but more frequently branched
          • insoluble compact store of glucose in animals
          • a glucose units, with 1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic links
      • structural polysaccharides
        • cellulose
          • arranged in a specific way to form plant cell walls
          • many hydrogen bonds form as there are so many OH groups
          • 60-70 cellulose molecules become cross linked with hydrogen bonds to form micro fibril bundles
          • polymer of beta glucose with each monomer inverted
    • condensation and hyrolysis
      • condensation method which joins small molecules together to form large ones, with the loss of a water molecule and a new covalent bond formed
        • hydrolysis:splits larger molecules up into smaller ones with a water molecule used and covalent bonds broken
    • made of carbon hydrogen and oxygen
    • isomers
      • same molecular formula but in a different arrangment teg alpha and beta glucose
        • in beta glucose the OH is on top on the right side


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