Carbohydrate mind map

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  • Carbohydrates
    • Monomers
      • Alpha glucose
        • C6H12O6
        • Hexose sugar
        • The chemical bonds in glucose contain a lot of energy and for good reason because it is the main energy source for many plants and animals
        • Its structure makes it soluble, meaning it can easily be transported around a cell or an organism
      • Beta glucose
        • C6H12O6
        • Hexose sugar
        • Its structure makes it soluble, meaning it can easily be transported around a cell or an organism
        • The chemical bonds in glucose contain a lot of energy and for good reason because it is the main energy source for many plants and animals
      • Ribose
        • C5H10O5
        • Pentose sugar
        • RNA is made using Ribose sugar
    • Polymers
      • The monomers in carbohydrates are monosaccharides - including hexose and pentose sugars like glucose and ribose
      • 2. Two monosaccharides can be combined to form a disaccharide, connected with a glycosidic bond. They are called condensation reaction because water is produced when the bond is made. A hydrolysis reaction is the reverse reaction
      • Lactose
        • Beta glucose and galactose
      • Maltose
        • Alpha glucose and alpha glucose
      • Sucrose
        • Alpha glucose and fructose
      • Many monomers joined with glycosidic bonds are called polysaccharides
      • Carbohydrate polymers like starch, glycogen and cellulose are polysaccharides consisting of different monomers
    • Starch
      • The main energy store in plants which plants break down for glucose when they need it
      • Consists of two polysaccharides
        • Amylopectin - a long branched chain of alpha glucose. The branches allow enzymes to reach and break the bonds easily to rapidly release
          • 1,4 glycosidic bonds
        • Amylose - a long unbranched chain of alpha glucose in a coiled structure. Coiling allows amylose to be very compact, meaning it can store a lot
          • 1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds between branches
      • Insoluble in water so good for storage as water potential isn't affected
    • Glycogen
      • The main energy store of animals which can be broken down into alpha glucose
      • Structurally, it is similar to amylopectin except that it has any more branches
      • Branches allow it to release energy more rapidly and therefore make it more compact and better for storage
      • 1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds
    • Cellulose
      • Long unbranched chains of beta glucose that form a major part of plant cell walls
      • Cellulose chains are linked together by hydrogen bonds to form strong fibres called microfibrils
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