Carbohydrates

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  • Carbohydrates
    • General formula: C(H2O)n
    • Monosaccharides
      • Alpha-Glucose
      • Beta-Glucose
      • Galactose
      • Fructose
    • Disaccharides
      • lactose
        • Glucose
        • Galactose
        • milk sugar
      • Sucrose
        • Glucose
        • Fructose
        • Table Sugar
      • Maltose
        • Glucose
        • Glucose
        • Germinating seeds
    • Polysaccharides
      • Starch
        • Poly-alpha-glucose
        • Amylose and Amylopectin
          • Amylose is helical
          • Amylopectin is helical with brances
          • 1-4 and 1-6 bonds
        • Energy storage in plants
        • Test is iodine solution, goes from light brown to blue/black
      • Glycogen
        • Poly-alpha-glucose
        • Branched helical shape
        • energy storage in plant cells in the muscles and liver
        • 1-4 and 1-6 bonds
      • Cellulose
        • Poly-Beta-Glucose
        • Long straight chains
          • Hydrogen bonds form between the chains
        • Strong microfibrilis
        • found in plant cell walls
        • Permeable and insoluble
    • Test for reducing sugars
      • Add benedicts reagent
        • Heat at 97C, goes from light blue to brick red
      • For non reducing sugars
        • Heat with HCl to hydrolyisise
          • Add sodium carbonate to neutralise
            • Then carry out test for reducing sugars
    • Hydrolysis and condesation
      • The addition of water to split apart disacchardies or polysaccharides
      • Condensation is the joining together of monnosaccharides with glycosidic bonds

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