Captive Breeding and Release ENVS1

MAy have too much on one brainstorm.

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  • Created by: José
  • Created on: 03-05-13 20:20
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  • Captive Breeding..
    • Zoos , Botanic gardens, Seed banks
    • Methods of increasing success of captive breeding
      • Cryopreservation, egg, sperm and embryo storage
        • Deep frozen sperm can be transported long distances
        • Stored sperm can also be used to produce off spring long after the parent has died
      • Artificial Insemination
        • Removes problems and risks of normally breeding and moving animals
      • Embryo  Transfer
        • The gestation period ( length  of pregnancy) can be reduced by Embryo Transfers
        • Some surrogate mothers can greatly increase the number of young
      • Micro-Propagation
        • A form of tissue culture where many clusters of cells can be produced from a single young plant or tissue sample
        • All are genetically identical
      • Release of captive-bred animals
        • They may not recognise food species or poisonous foods
        • They may be poor hunters or not  as good at escaping predators
        • Some may have no developed  hunting skills in captivity
        • May have no immunity to local diseases
        • May not be accepted by indigenous population
        • Species like apes and monkeys, with close social structures may reject them
          • Meaning they cannot breed  and are less likely to have protection
        • Specific behavioral patterns may not have been learnt
        • Other species have colonised and taken over their niche
  • Problems
    • Captive Breeding..
      • Zoos , Botanic gardens, Seed banks
      • Methods of increasing success of captive breeding
        • Cryopreservation, egg, sperm and embryo storage
          • Deep frozen sperm can be transported long distances
          • Stored sperm can also be used to produce off spring long after the parent has died
        • Artificial Insemination
          • Removes problems and risks of normally breeding and moving animals
        • Embryo  Transfer
          • The gestation period ( length  of pregnancy) can be reduced by Embryo Transfers
          • Some surrogate mothers can greatly increase the number of young
        • Micro-Propagation
          • A form of tissue culture where many clusters of cells can be produced from a single young plant or tissue sample
          • All are genetically identical
        • Release of captive-bred animals
          • They may not recognise food species or poisonous foods
          • They may be poor hunters or not  as good at escaping predators
          • Some may have no developed  hunting skills in captivity
          • May have no immunity to local diseases
          • May not be accepted by indigenous population
          • Species like apes and monkeys, with close social structures may reject them
            • Meaning they cannot breed  and are less likely to have protection
          • Specific behavioral patterns may not have been learnt
          • Other species have colonised and taken over their niche
    • Expensive not enough money to keep  populations of endangered species in captivity
    • Species with complicated interactions
      • Plants with symbiotic  relations, Mycorrhizal root fungi
    • Stimulated Factors needed for Breeding
      • Day length, light level, temperature, amount of food, amount of stored body fat, suitable site for courtship, same partner, new partner, open spaces.
    • Knowledge of habitat requirements limited
    • Inbreeding
      • Harmful recsesive genes could be expressed and cause undesirable characteristics
      • Use of stud book to track family trees of individuals  to make sure they are as unrelated as possible
    • Possibility of interbreeding (Hybridise) something that wouldn't naturally in the wild.
      • May course unique features to be lost and future release programs would not be reintroducing  the same species into the wild
    • Problems with seedbanks
      • Viability of the seeds declines
      • Gene pool reducted
      • Need to be regularly germinated, cultivated to produce more for storage, which would be expensive
      • Larger seeds or fruits harder to store
      • Seeds with higher water content, e'g coconuts  are harder to store due to natural preservation
  • Diffculty in providing food  for species
    • Problems
      • Expensive not enough money to keep  populations of endangered species in captivity
      • Species with complicated interactions
        • Plants with symbiotic  relations, Mycorrhizal root fungi
      • Stimulated Factors needed for Breeding
        • Day length, light level, temperature, amount of food, amount of stored body fat, suitable site for courtship, same partner, new partner, open spaces.
      • Knowledge of habitat requirements limited
      • Inbreeding
        • Harmful recsesive genes could be expressed and cause undesirable characteristics
        • Use of stud book to track family trees of individuals  to make sure they are as unrelated as possible
      • Possibility of interbreeding (Hybridise) something that wouldn't naturally in the wild.
        • May course unique features to be lost and future release programs would not be reintroducing  the same species into the wild
      • Problems with seedbanks
        • Viability of the seeds declines
        • Gene pool reducted
        • Need to be regularly germinated, cultivated to produce more for storage, which would be expensive
        • Larger seeds or fruits harder to store
        • Seeds with higher water content, e'g coconuts  are harder to store due to natural preservation
    • Bamboo for pandas
  • Insects for bats
    • Diffculty in providing food  for species
      • Bamboo for pandas

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