Cake Ingredients and their Functions

View mindmap
  • Cake Ingredients and Functions
    • Flour
      • Weak or strong flour is most suitable for cakes.
        • Contains small amount of gluten-forming proteins.
      • When cakes are baked the gluten coagulates
        • Helps form structure of cake.
      • SR flour is used for cakes where fat to flour proportion is no more than half.  
        • For rich cakes, baking powder content of SR flour is too high so plain flour is used.  
      • You can get  80% extraction flour.  
        •  Can get SR flour of this extraction.  
          • Cakes made with SR flour of this extraction tend to have less volume because of extra NSP.  
        •  Provides NSP, nutrients colour and flavour.  
      •  The starch in flour gets trapped in framework produced by expansion of gas bubbles of gluten during baking.  
        •  Adds to lightness of the cake.  
    • Sugar
      • Sugar Can:
        • Add flavour  
        • Help to trap  air with fat in creaming so cake rises.  
        • Contribute to texture by:  
          • Dissolving into a syrup and softening the gluten in the flour. However if too much sugar is added the gluten will be too soft and the cake collapses.  
        • Add colour by caramelizing the crust of the cake on exposure to dry heat.  
      • Types of Sugar
        • Caster Sugar is most suitable as it has small crystals which dissolve easily and they give a smooth texture to the cake.
        • Granulated sugar has coarser crystals so it has to be creamed more thoroughly to break these down
        • Soft Brown Sugar is used for dark coloured and fruit cakes. It also contributes to the flavour of the cake
        • Syrup or treacle can be used with sugar to contribute towards texture and moistness of cake
    • Fat
      • Fats are added to:
        • Trap air during creaming so cake will rise
        • To provide 'shortness' to the cake mixture
          • Fat is insoluble in water and it stops gluten strands adhering to each other. This stops cake from being solid and tough.
        • To add colour and texture to the mixture
      • Types of fat
        • Margarine is economical. 'Soft' margarine is produced for creaming but it is too oily for rubbing in.
        • Butter provides good flavour and colour. It can be mixed with margarine to make it more economical
        • White cooking fats (vegetable) don't contribute to colour or flavour. It can be used in creaming and it can be used in strongly flavoured mixtures.
        • Lard is mostly unsuitable as it has a strong flavour and doesn't cream well.
        • Oil can be used in some mixtures where there is an extra raising agent but you can't trap air during creaming if only oil is used.
    • Eggs
      • Eggs are added to:
        • To trap air during whisking with sugar in sponges or beating into creamed mixtures. They hold large amounts of air.
        • To help set the cake after the gluten has coagulated after baking
        • To add colour and nutritional value
        • To emulsify the fat in creamed mixtures the lethicin in the yolk is responsible for this
      • In creamed mixtures if the egg is too cold it may curdle.
      • Eggs should be fresh and opened into a separate bowl first to avoid adding a bad egg.
    • Dry ingredients
      • Apart from flour, dry ingredients should be sieved to ensure even distribution
    • Liquids
      • Apart from egg, liquids help to raise cake mixture by producing steam during baking but they may toughen the gluten and produce a toughter texture
    • Flavourings
      • Some such as citrus rind and dried fruit help with the keeping of the cake as there is moisture in the latter and oil in the former.
      • Dried fruit should be well washed and dried and should be chopped to uniform size. They can be coated in flour to prevent sinking in the mixture and sticking.
      • Flavourings such as coffee should be dissolved first to prevent a speckled appearance
  •  Provides NSP, nutrients colour and flavour.  
  • Fat is insoluble in water and it stops gluten strands adhering to each other. This stops cake from being solid and tough.
  • In creamed mixtures if the egg is too cold it may curdle.

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Design & Technology: Food Technology resources:

See all Design & Technology: Food Technology resources »See all Functional properties resources »