GCSE Chemistry- C8

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  • C8-Rates and Equilibrium
    • Rate of Reaction
      • measures speed of reaction eg: explosion= fast RoR, rusting of iron= slow RoR
      • mean RoR= quantity of reactant/time taken OR quantity of product/time taken
      • The RoR can be found on a graph by the gradient the line.
    • Collision Theory
      • Particles can only react if they collide.
      • The minimum energy they can have is ACTIVATION ENERGY.
      • Surface Area
        • RoR increases if surface area to volume ratio of solid reactants is increased
          • Increases frequency of collisions
    • KEY WORDS- Gradient, Collision theory, activation energy, catalyst, hydrated, anhydrous, closed system, equilibrium, La Chateliers Principal
    • Effect of Temperature
      • Reaction speed increases
      • More particles have more than required activation energy
        • Product produced more quickly
    • Concentration & Pressure
      • Increasing concentration increases frequency of collisions & RoR
      • Increasing pressure of gasses increases RoR
    • Catalysts
      • Speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction but remains chemically unchanged.
      • Different catalysts are needed for different reactions
      • They help reduce energy costs
    • Reversible Reactions
      • The products of the reaction can ret to make the original reaction
      • The reversible reaction is represented  using an arrow sign.
    • Dynamic Equilibrium
      • In a closed system the rate of both reactions are the same.
      • Changing the reaction conditions alters the amount of product produced and the time it takes

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