C7.3

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  • C7.3
    • Alkanes
      • Hydrocarbons
        • 1. Alkanes are made up of chains of carbon atoms which are surronded by hydrogen atoms
        • 2. Alkanes only contain single covalent bonds between each of the carbon atoms
        • 3. The Alkane family contain molecules that look very similar, but have different length chain molecules
        • All alkanes have the same formula CnH2n+2
      • Examples
        • Metane
          • CH4
        • Ethane
          • C2H6
        • Butane
          • C4H10
      • Reactions
        • Alkanes burn to give carbon dioxide and water
        • alkane + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water
        • CH4 + 2O2 --> 2H2O + CO2
        • They do not react with most chemicals
          • Alkanes are pretty unreactive towards most chemicals
          • They do not react with aqueous reagents
          • Bonds are difficult to break
    • Alcohols
      • Functional Group
        • 1. The general formula for an alcohol is CnH2n+1OH
        • 2. You need to know the first 2 alcohols for example methanol and ethanol
        • 3. The OH bit is called the functional groups
        • 4. All alcohols have similar properties because they all have OH functional group
      • Similarities and Differances
        • 1. Ethanol is soluble in water
        • 2. Ethanol and water are both good solvents
        • 3. The boiling point of ethanol is 78 degrees. This is lower than the boiling point of water but much higher than the boiling point of a similar size alkane
        • 4. Ethanol is a liquid at room temperature. It evaporates easily and gives off fumes
      • Uses
        • Solvents
        • Fuels
        • Manufacturing
        • Uses part 2
          • 1. Alcohols for example methanol and ethanol, can dissolve lots of compounds that water can not for example hydrocarbons and oils. This makes it useful as solvents
          • 2. It is used for manufacturing other organic chemicals
          • 3. Ethanol is used as perfumes
          • 4. It is used as chemicals
      • Reactions
        • They react with sodium
        • Sodium + Ethanol --> sodium ethoxide + hydrogen
        • Sodium + water --> sodium hydroxide + hydrogen
    • Carboxylic Acids
      • Functional groups
        • Carboxylic acids have COOH
        • The functional groups gives them all similar properties
        • Their names end in anoic acid
      • They react like other acids
        • 1. Carboxylic acids react with alkalis, carbonates and reactive metals just like any other acid
        • 2. The salts which are formed in these reactions end in anoate for example methanoic acid forms a methanoate
          • Carboxylic acids react with metals to give a salt and hydrogen
          • Carboxylic acids react with carbonatoes to give a salt, water and carbon dioxide
          • Carboxylic acids react with alkalis to form a salt and water
        • 3. Carboxylic acids are weak acids. They are less reactive than strong acids like hydrochoric acid, sulfuric acids and nitric acid
        • 4. Dilute solutions of these weak acid will have higher Ph values than dilute solutions of strong acids. For example dilute ethanoic acid will have a higher Ph than dilute sulphuric acid
      • They stink
        • They hve strong smells and tastes
        • If wine or beer is left in the open it oxidises to ethanoic acid

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