Chemistry C7 - Green and Organic Chemistry

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  • C7 - Green Chemistry and Organic Chemistry
    • Chemical synthesis
      • Fine chemicals
        • e.g. drugs, medicine, perfumes, flavourings and preservatives in food.
        • Very small scale production.
      • Bulk chemicals
        • e.g. Sulfuric acid, ammonia, sodium hydroxide, phosphoric acid.
        • Large scale production. Very big factories.
          • Manufacturing
            • Very small scale production.
      • Manufacturing
      • Process sustainability
        • Health and safety of employees, product use and locals
        • Social and Economic benefits - costs, use and safety.
        • Energy. Lot of input and output?
        • By-products. How much? Harmful? Useful? Disposal?
        • Impact on environment.
        • Feed-stock. Is it renewable?
        • The reaction. Does it have a high atom economy and high percentage yield.
          • Atom economy - how much of the feedstock that is made into useful products. The experiment's efficiency.
            • Mass of desired product over mass of reactants.
          • % yield - actual yield over theoretical yield.
            • Actual yield is different to theoretical yield because: raw materials may not be pure, some product may be left in apparatus, reaction may not be finished, may give unexpected products.
            • Careful planning and design of equipment and experiment method can increase the % yield.
      • Masses
        • RAM / Ar
        • RFM / Mr
      • Hydro-carbons
        • Alkanes
          • There are single bonds between the carbon atoms. This is why they are saturated.
          • General formula: C(n)H(2n+2)
          • Alkanes are the more basic bases.
          • When alkanes burn, they produce cabon dioxide and water.
        • Alkenes
          • There are double bonds between the carbon atoms. This is why they are unsaturated.
            • An unsaturated hydrocarbon makes an aqueous solution of bromine turn from orange to colourless because the double bonds break and the carbon bonds to the bromine. A saturated hydrocarbon leaves the bromine solution orange.
              • There are single bonds between the carbon atoms. This is why they are saturated.
          • General formula: C(n)H(2n)
          • No methane because there is not enough carbons for double bonding.
        • Alcohols
          • General formula: C(n)H(2n+1)OH
          • Based on an alkane (no double bonds)
          • Uses: drinks, medicines, make-up, perfume, cleaning products, solvents, diesel, petrol, nappy wipes, sterilising equipment in hospitals.
          • Methanol is poisonous.
          • Burn to form Carbon dioxide and oxygen.
          • Reacts with sodium.
          • Producing ethanol
            • Fermentation - yeast makes enzymes to  produce a dilute ethanol solution from sugar.
              • Produces Carbon Dioxide so renewable options are needed.
                • Biomass - Left over plant material from agriculture and logging has been broken down by genetically modified bacteria (E-coli), which converts the biomass into ethanol.
                  • Normal temperatures, no waste produced.
                  • MOST SUSTAINABLE METHOD.
                • Crude oil - Ethane is found in crude oil and then converted into ethene. Ethene reacts with steam to form ethanol. This reaction needs a catalyst.
                  • high temperatures of 300^C with phosphoric acid as a catalyst.
            • Distillation - heating the ethanol solution to make it more concentrated above its boiling point (78 ^C). Ethanol boils off and condenses to form the liquid called spirit.
              • Uses: spirit drinks like whisky, vodka, gin. And in fuels.
            • Biomass - Left over plant material from agriculture and logging has been broken down by genetically modified bacteria (E-coli), which converts the biomass into ethanol.
              • Normal temperatures, no waste produced.
              • MOST SUSTAINABLE METHOD.
            • Crude oil - Ethane is found in crude oil and then converted into ethene. Ethene reacts with steam to form ethanol. This reaction needs a catalyst.
              • high temperatures of 300^C with phosphoric acid as a catalyst.
        • Carboxylic acids
          • General formula: C(n-1)H(2n-1)COOH
          • These are weak acids because they don't completely ionise
        • Esters
          • These are made from carboxylic acids and alcohols.
          • Uses: fruits, flavouring, sweets, perfumes, nail varnish remover, solvents for inks, paints and nail varnish.
          • Low melting and boiling point, can evaporate quickly at room temperature, can be carried by air in vapour form.
          • Making it: reflux condenser - water evaporates and condenses until layers are established.
            • Separate water from the ester. Evaporate the water and let it condense out of the mixture while the wanted product is collected in the distillate.
              • Use a tap funnel to separate the ester from the water as some may have not boiled off in the previous stage.
                • Add some anhydrous calcium chloride to remove any excess water.
                  • Distil again while checking the temperature to get the purest product.
        • 1 carbon= meth. 2 carbons=eth. 3 carbons= prop. 4 carbons=but. 5 carbons= pent. 6 carbons= hex.
      • Speeding up reactions

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