C5 - Chemicals in the natural environment

A summary of Twenty first Century Science C5 topic

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  • C5 - Chemicals of the natural Environment.
    • The Atmosphere
      • 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 1% Argon, 0.04% CO2
      • Molecules in the atmosphere have low melting and boiling points.
      • Covalent Bond
        • Sharing electrons
        • Making a full outer shell.
        • Bond due to electrostatic attraction between positive nuclei and negative electron.
    • The Hydrosphere
      • Oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, puddles.
      • Compounds dissolved in water such as ionic compounds (salt)
      • Solid ionic compounds form crystals
        • Giant 3-D lattice
        • Very strong chemical bonds
        • Ions with opposite charge create strong attraction.
        • Charged compounds called ions.
        • high melting and boiling point
        • Can conduct energy when molten or dissolved
          • Electrons are free to move and transfer energy.
    • The Lithosphere
      • Made from a mixture of minerals
      • Carbon forms giant covalent structures.
        • Diamond
          • 4 covalent bonds
          • very rigid
          • Hardest natural substance
          • High Melting and boiling point
            • Strong covalent bonds
          • Does not conduct
            • No free electrons.
          • Insoluble
        • Graphite
          • 3 Covalent bonds
          • sheets of carbon ( slide over each other)
          • Layers are loose
          • high melting points
            • strong covalent bonds
          • Conducts
            • spare electrons.
    • Identifying ions.
      • Negative Ion
        • Hydrochloric acid helps detect carbonates
          • Lime water goes cloudy.
        • Barium chloride detects sulphates
          • White precipitate.
          • add dilute HCL, followed by barium chloride.
        • Test for halides
          • add dilute nitric acid followed by silver nitrate solution.
            • Chloride- White precipitate
            • Bromide - Cream precipitate
            • iodide - yellow precipitate
      • Positive Ion
        • Flame test
        • Sodium hydroxide
    • Extraction of metal
      • Reduction by adding carbon or carbon monoxide.
      • Electrolysis
        • Splitting up with electricity.
        • Electrolyte conducts electricity.
        • Positive ions (metal) attract to negative electode.
        • Negative ion (non-metal) to positive electrode.
      • Relative Atomic mass/ Relative Formula mass x mass of ore.
        • Relative atomic mass - top number on periodic table
        • Relative formula mass - atomic mass added together.
    • Metals
      • Conduct
        • Metallic bonds free electrons
      • Strong and malleable.
      • High melting and boiling point.

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