C5 - Chemicals of the Natural Environment

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  • C5 - Chemicals of the Natural Environment
    • The Earth's Sphere
      • Atmosphere
        • Atmosphere: The layer of gases that surround the Earth.
          • E.g. Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen.
      • Hydrosphere
        • Hydrosphere: All the water on Earth.
          • E.g. Oceans, Rivers, Lakes.
      • Biosphere
        • Biosphere: All living things on Earth.
          • E.g. Plants, Animals.
      • Lithosphere
        • Lithosphere: The Earth's crust and the top part of the mantle
          • E.g. Copper, Sodium Chloride, Coal, Sulfur, Graphite.
        • Oxygen 46.6%
        • Silicon 27.7%
        • Aluminium 8.1%
    • Covalent Bonding
      • Occures between non-metals.
      • Generally forms small molecules.
      • Atoms with nearly a full outer shell will share electrons.
      • The sharing of electrons.
      • Simplete Covalent Structure
        • C5 - Chemicals of the Natural Environment
          • The Earth's Sphere
            • Atmosphere
              • Atmosphere: The layer of gases that surround the Earth.
                • E.g. Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen.
            • Hydrosphere
              • Hydrosphere: All the water on Earth.
                • E.g. Oceans, Rivers, Lakes.
            • Biosphere
              • Biosphere: All living things on Earth.
                • E.g. Plants, Animals.
            • Lithosphere
              • Lithosphere: The Earth's crust and the top part of the mantle
                • E.g. Copper, Sodium Chloride, Coal, Sulfur, Graphite.
              • Oxygen 46.6%
              • Silicon 27.7%
              • Aluminium 8.1%
          • Covalent Bonding
            • Occures between non-metals.
            • Generally forms small molecules.
            • Atoms with nearly a full outer shell will share electrons.
            • The sharing of electrons.
            • Simplete Covalent Structure
              • Low melting point.
              • Non-metals
              • Not soluble in water.
            • Giant Covalent Structure
              • Non-metals
              • Not soluble in water
              • Hard crystalline solid
              • High melting point
          • Ionic Bodning
            • Occurs between non-metals.
            • One atom loses electrons other gains
            • Forms very strong bond
            • Oppositely charged ions strongly attracted to each other.
            • Ionic Strutcture
              • High melting points.
              • Hard crystalline solid
              • Metal and non-metal
              • Electrical conductor in solution or molten
          • Precipitates
            • When two solutions mix, react to form an insoluble product.
            • Insoluble product - Precipitate.
              • Makes solution go cloduy.
                • E.g. lead nitrate and potassium iodide produces yellow precipitate - Lead iodide
          • Diamond
            • Very Strong
            • High melting and boiling point.
              • Graphite
                • Conducts electricity.
                • Forms in layers
            • Insoluble in water
              • Graphite
                • Conducts electricity.
                • Forms in layers
            • Does not conduct electricity
          • Reactivity Series
            • MOST REACTIVE Potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium
              • Separated by electrolysis
            • MIDDLE REACTIVE Zic, iron, tin, lead, copper
              • Reduction of ores using carbon
            • LEAST REACTIVE silver, gold
              • Metals occur uncmbined (they are pure).
        • Low melting point.
        • Non-metals
        • Not soluble in water.
      • Giant Covalent Structure
        • Non-metals
        • Not soluble in water
        • Hard crystalline solid
        • High melting point
    • Ionic Bodning
      • Occurs between non-metals.
      • One atom loses electrons other gains
      • Forms very strong bond
      • Oppositely charged ions strongly attracted to each other.
      • Ionic Strutcture
        • High melting points.
        • Hard crystalline solid
        • Metal and non-metal
        • Electrical conductor in solution or molten
    • Precipitates
      • When two solutions mix, react to form an insoluble product.
      • Insoluble product - Precipitate.
        • Makes solution go cloduy.
          • E.g. lead nitrate and potassium iodide produces yellow precipitate - Lead iodide
    • Diamond
      • Very Strong
      • High melting and boiling point.
        • Insoluble in water
          • Does not conduct electricity
        • Reactivity Series
          • MOST REACTIVE Potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium
            • Separated by electrolysis
          • MIDDLE REACTIVE Zic, iron, tin, lead, copper
            • Reduction of ores using carbon
          • LEAST REACTIVE silver, gold
            • Metals occur uncmbined (they are pure).

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