C4 - Chemical Patterns

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  • C4 - Chemical Patterns
    • Atomic Structure
      • An atom has a tiny central nucleus made of protons & neutrons & around the nucleus are electrons
      • Particles with their relative mass/charge:
        • Proton - Relative mass: 1 Relative charge: +1
        • Neutron - Relative mass: 1 Relative charge: none
        • Electron - Relative mass: negligible Relative charge: -1
      • All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons
        • For example, every sodium atom has 11 protons, therefore the proton number of sodium is 11
      • The number of electrons is the same number of protons in an atom
      • Electrons are arranged in shells & each electron shell fills from left to right across a period
    • Distinctive Flame Colours
      • If you hold any lithium compound in a Bunsen flame at the end of a platinum wire, you can see a red flame
      • Compounds of other elements make different coloured flames
      • When light from the flame goes through a prism, it makes a line spectrum
      • Every element has its own line spectrum
      • Chemists have studied these spectra & have discovered new elements through it
    • Ions & Ionic Compounds
      • If you melt an ionic compound containing both metal & non-metal ions, it conducts electricity
      • An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has either gained or lost electrons, so it has an overall charge
      • An atom of sodium  has 11 positively charged protons in its nucleus & 11 negatively charged atoms around the nucleus
        • A sodium atom loses one electron to become an ion so a sodium atom has 11 protons & 10 electrons
          • The overall charge is +1 & the formula is Na+
      • Sodium chloride is a compound that is made made from ions &, therefore, is called ionic
      • Every compound made from both a group 1 & group 7 metal are ionic
      • In solid ionic compounds, the ions are arranged in a regular lattice, so solid ionic compounds form crystals
        • When ionic crystals melt or dissolve, the ions are free to move independently, therefore ionic compounds conduct electricity when liquid or in solution


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