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  • C4
    • Atomic Structure
      • Periodic Table: new period starts when an electron shell is filled
      • Relative mass: P=1, N=1, E=0.0005
      • Isotope: varieties of an element with same #P, different #N
      • Group no. - #E in outer shell
      • Period no. - #E shells
      • E structure: atoms with full outer shell of 8E = more stable
      • Atoms react together to be 'stable' e.g. by transer of E in ionic bonding
      • Development of Atomic Theory
        • Dalton's Atomic Theory
          • All matter: made of atoms
          • Atoms can't be broken down into anything simpler
          • All atoms of a particular element are identical to each other + different from atoms of other elements
          • Atoms rearrange in chemical reactions
          • Compounds form when 2 or more different kinds of atoms join
        • 1897, JJ Thompson discovered electron: shows atoms contain smaller pieces
        • 1911, Ernest Rutherford used experimental evidence to show that atoms must contain a central nucleus: further evidence that atoms contain smaller pieces
    • Ionic Bonding: metal + non-metal
      • Metal atoms lose Es: +ion
      • Non-metal atoms gain Es: -ion
      • Group no. - +charge on metal
      • Group no. - 8: -charge on non-metal


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