Chemistry C4

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  • C4 - Chemical Patterns
    • Creation- Periodic Table
      • Mendeleev
        • Organised atoms in order of protons, neutrons and electrons
        • He was the only scientist who left gaps for new atoms that would be discovered in the future
      • Flame test colours were unique for each atom and could be spotted on a line spectrum
      • Electrons have a negative charge of -1
      • Neutrons have a charge of 0. This means that the nucleus has an overall positive charge.
        • This means that the nucleus has an overall positive charge.
      • Electron configuration is 2.8.8.8.....
        • A complete first shell has 2 electrons. The rest of the shells need 8 to be complete.
    • Group 1 (Alkali Earth Metals)
      • Reactivity increases as metals go down.
        • More electrons = higher reactivity
        • Least reactive is Lithium, which only has 3 electrons in its outer shell - stronger forces between nucleus and electrons so it cannot lose elctrons easily
        • Most reactive is Francium, which has 87 electrons in its outer shell - weaker forces between nucleus and electrons so it is easier for it to lose electrons during a reaction, it is therefore very reactive
      • Has one extra electron on its outer shell, wants to lose it during a reaction.
      • React violently with water. Hydrogen and a metal hydroxide (alkali) is formed.
        • The metals are highly flammable and the hydroxides produced are corrosive and harmful.
    • Group 7 (Halogens)
      • Reactivity increases as gases go up
        • Less electrons = higher reactivity
        • Most reactive is Fluorine, which has 9 electrons in its outer shell - there are stronger forces between the nucleus and electrons so electrons that are given out during the reaction are very easily attracted to the shell.
        • Least reactive is Astatine, which has 85 electrons in its outer shell - there are weaker forces between the nucleus and electrons so it is a lot harder for it to attract more electrons.
      • Have one less electron on their outer shell, these want to gain one electron to be left with a full shell after the reaction.
      • All are diatomic molecules. There is 2 atoms joined together. There are covalent bonds between them which allow to share the electrons and have temporary full outer shells.
    • Ionic Compounds
      • Crystal lattice - all ions (charged particles) are arranged in a compact regular pattern.
      • Ionic compounds are soluble in water and they conduct electricity when melted. When it  is melted, the ions are free to move to the electrodes.
    • In a reaction between Sodium Chloride and Fluorine, the Fluorine would DISPLACE the chlorine because it is more reactive. This is called a displacement reaction - where the more reactive atom of the group will replace the other when it is part of a compound.

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