C4 Chemical Patterns

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  • C4 - Chemical Patterns
    • Group 1
      • Reactivity
        • As electrons on the outer shell get much further away from the nucleus as you go down group 1, electrostatic bond gets weaker
          • This mean that reactivity increases as you go down the group
      • Reactions
        • Chlorine
          • Colourless, crystalline salt
          • Formula = MCl, where M is group 1 metal
        • Oxygen
          • Tarnishes in moist air
        • Water
          • Li -  fizzing
          • Na - violent fizzing
          • K - flame
    • Ionic Bonding
    • Periodic Table
      • Spectroscopy
        • Some elements produce different colour flames when burnt
          • When refracted, to get spectra, each element has it's unique spectra
      • Interpreting
        • Two numbers next to element's symbol. RAM (Relative Atomic Mass) and Proton Number
          • Larger Number is RAM
          • Smaller number is Proton Number
            • There are the same number of electrons as the proton number, creating an overall neutral atom.
        • If you go across the periodic table, the row is called a period
          • If you go up or down the table, the column is called a group
        • Atomic Structure
          • Electrons :  Negative charge, and have a mass of 1/2000
          • Protons: Positive charge, has a mass of 1
          • Neutrons: No charge (neutral), has a mass of 1
      • Development
        • Döbereiner
          • 'Triads' - Patterns of three
            • If you take average of 3 similar elements, you get the same as the 'middle' element.
              • Doesn't work for ALL elements
        • Newlands
          • 'Octaves' - every 8th element similar
          • Arranged elements by RAM
          • Didn't work for ALL elements
            • New elements being discovered
        • Mendeleev
          • Also arranged elements by RAM
          • Gaps in table for undiscovered elements
          • New elements properties predicted.
      • Electronic Configuration
        • First shell holds 2 electrons
        • Other shells hold 8 electrons
        • Fill shells from inside
    • Group 7
      • Reactivity
        • Electrons on the outer shell also get further away from nucleus, meaning a weaker electrostatic bond
          • However, reactivity decreases as it is harder to gain electrons when the outer shell is  further from the nucleus.
      • Properties
        • All group 7 elements are diatomic
        • Fluorine is a pale yellow gas at room temp.
          • Chlorine is a green gas at room temp.
            • Bromine is a red-brown liquid at room temp.
              • Iodine is a grey solid at room temp.
                • Iodine forms a purple gas
              • Bromine forms an orange gas.
      • Displacement


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