C4

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  • C4
    • The Periodic Table
      • Arranged into groups and periodsGROUPS = how many electrons in outer shell PERIODS = How many electron shells
      • Atomic number = Number of protons which equals number of neutrons
      • RAM = atomic mass. No of neutrons = Atomic mass-number of electrons
    • Bonding
      • Ionic
        • Unstable atoms = too many or too little electrons in outer shell.
        • Too little + too many = stable atom ionically bonding
        • Metal - Non Metal
        • mg2+ + 02- = mg+02
      • Covalent
        • Non Metal - Non Metal
        • Atoms share outer shell
      • Metallic
        • An electrostatic force of attraction between metal ions and a sea of delocalised electrons.
        • hard to break
        • Superconducters = no electrical resistence.ADS = loss free power transmission./fast electrical circuits/powerful electromagnetsCONS = only at -269 degrees
    • Group 1
      • Alkali Metals react with water and oxygen
      • More reactive as go down group, can react with group 7 halogens
      • Flame test to test for alkali metals
        • first, dip the wire in acid to sterilise. Then, use it to pick up element and put under flame.RED = LithiumOrange = SodiumLilac = Potassium
    • Group 7
      • Halogens
      • React with the group 1 elements
      • Bromine = Orange/Brown solid and used for pesticides.Chlorine = green gas and used for sterilisation. Flourine = gas used for toothpaste
    • Transition elements
      • Copper = BlueIron (II) = pale greenIron (III) = orange/brown
      • Thermal  decomposition always makes CO2.
    • Water
      • 1. Filtration - Large insoluble material is filtered off by sand or gravel.
      • 2. Sedimentation - Chemicals are added to make large insoluble lumps, which are filtered off
      • 3. Chlorination - Chlorine is added to kill microbes
      • Water tests using silver nitrate and barium chloride.

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