C3- chemicals in our lives

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  • C3- chemicals in our lives
    • techtonic plate movements
      • Eath's crust is split into tectonic plates- convection currents in the earths mantle cause them to move
        • when the plates move apart, magma forms new rock, it is magnetised in the direction of the earth's magnetic field
          • this swaps from reversed polarity to normal polarity every 1/2 million years
    • sedimentary rocks
      • formed when sediment build up and is 'squished' toghether
      • contain either water borne or air borne grains, and sometimes fossils
        • gives us clues about the history of the earth
    • different rocks = different minerals
      • formed through sedimentation, mountain building, erosion or dissolving
      • coal- sedimentary, mainly carbon, impure
    • SALT
      • left behind in evaporation, can be extracted from underground
      • normal salt mining- rock salt is blasted, dug out and brought to surface
        • impure, grit on roads not food, could collapse
      • solution mining- water into deposit, brine is made and extracted, then salt is taken through evaporation or electrolysis
        • could collapse, so dangerous
      • from sea- sea water into shallow section, evaporates leaving salt. Very pure
      • Food- preserves and adds flavour
        • health risks- high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and heart disiease
          • food companies put in to make taste better and last longer any way
      • electrolysis- splitting a compound by running a current through it
        • sodium chloride- chlorine (bleach etc), sodium hydroxide (soap etc) and hydrogen (fuel cells etc)
        • environment impacts- mercury, toxic so ca contaminate water, high energy, CO2 asbestos used
    • chlorination- adding chlorine to water
      • kills bacteria, prevents algae and bad odours in pipes and organic discolouration reduced
      • can react with organisms- cancerous, chlorine is an irritant!
    • Alkalis- a compound that forms OH- ions when dissolved in water
      • soluble hydroxides and carbonates are alkali
      • react with acids to form salt and water
      • uses- dyes for cloth, neutralise acidic soil, manufacturing glass, convert fats and oils to soap
      • LEBLANC process- 19th century
        • sodium carbonate from sodium chloride and sulfuric acid heated with charcoal and limestone
        • problems- expesive, sulfur is a toxic waste, elost of energy needed
    • life cycle assessments
      • looks at materials used in making, manufacturing the product, use of the product and disposal of the product
        • all taken into account and then the environmental impacts are identified




Finally what I was looking for! Thanks :)

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