C3 mindmap

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  • C3
    • states of matter
      • solids, liquids and gases
        • in boiling and melting. energy is transferred to substance from surroundings
    • atoms into ions
      • elements react to form compounds by gaining, losing or sharing electrons
        • G1 elements react with G7. atoms of G1 can lose one electron to gain the stable structure of a noble gas. this electron can be given to a G7 atom. both stable.
    • ionic bonding
      • ionic compounds are held together  by strong forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions.
        • besides G1&7, other elements that can form ionic compounds are G2&6
    • giant ionic structures
      • all ionic lattices have high melting and boiling points as it takes a lot of energy to break the bonds
        • ionic compounds will conduct electricity when molten or dissolved in water. this is because their ions can then become mobile and can carry charge through lquid
    • covalent bonding
      • formed when atoms of non-metals share pairs of electrons with each other
        • each shared pair of electrons is a covalent bond
          • many substances containing covalent bonds consist of simple molecules, but some have giant lattice structures
    • structure of simple molecules
      • substances made up of simple molecules have low melting & boiling points
        • forces between are weak, and simple molecules have no overall charge so cannot conduct electricity
    • giant covalent structures
      • high melting and boiling points
        • graphite contains layers of bonded carbon atoms but no bonds between layers, making graphite soft and slippery
          • can conduct electricity and thermal energy because of delocalised electrons
    • fullerenes and graphene
      • as well as diamond and graphite, carbon exists as fullerenes. form cage like structures & tubes based on hexagonal rings of carbon atoms
        • fullerenes are finding uses transporting drugs to specific sites in body & as catalyst & reinforcement for composite materials
          • graphene is a single layer of graphite.good electrical conductor
    • bonding in metals
      • the atoms in a metal are closely packed together
        • metallic bonding is like positively charged ions which are held together by outershell electrons. delocalised electrons free to move
    • giant metallic structures
      • metals can be shaped because the layers of atoms can slide over each other in a giant metallic structure
        • alloys are harder that pure metal because the layers in a pure metal are distorted by atoms of different sizes in an alloy
          • delocalised electrons in metals enable electricity and thermal energy to be transferred
    • nanoparticles
      • nanoscience is the study of small particles between 1 and 100 nanometres in size
        • nanoparticles may have different properties than those for the same material in bulk. this is because nanoparticles have a larger surface area
          • nanoparticles may result in smaller quantities of materials, such as catalysts and being needed for industrial process
    • applications of nanoparticles
      • new developments are very exciting and could improve many aspects of modern life
        • the increased use of nanoparticles needs more research into possible issues that might arise in terms of health and the environment


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