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  • C2a
    • Giant ionic structures
      • Will conduct electricity when molten, high boiling point
    • Giant covalent structures
      • Graphite - free electrons has each carbon atom has one delocalised electron
        • Arranged in layers which can slide over one another due to weak intermolecular forces between layers
      • Diamond - each carbon atom forms 4 complete covalent bonds in a very rigid covalent structure
    • Metallic structures
      • Alloys are harder than pure metal - different elements have different sized atoms so layers become distorted so they can't slide over one another
    • Nitinol is affected by temperature
    • Calculating masses
      • Go over method
    • Paper chromatography
      • Place substance in cup with solvent, put a spot of coloured solution on a pencil baseline on filter paper, put paper in beaker of solvent, solvent soaked up, measure distances of travelling dyes
    • Instrumental methods (machines)
      • Sensitive, fast and accurate


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