C2 - Bonding, Structure and the properties of Matter

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  • C2 - Bonding, Structure and the properties of Matter
    • States Of Matter
      • Solid
        • Close together; regular pattern.
        • Vibrates on the spot
        • Fixed shape cannot flow
        • Cannot be compressed or squashed
      • Liquid
        • Close together
        • Move around each other
        • Flows and takes shape of container
        • Cannot be compressed or squashed.
      • Gas
        • Far apart
        • Random arrangement
        • Flow and fill their container
        • Can be compressed or squash
        • Move quickly in all directions
      • State symbols
        • l - liquid
        • s - solid
        • g - gas
        • aq - aqueous solution
    • Bonding
      • Ionic
        • between a metal and a non-metal.
        • No definite shape
        • high melting point
        • high boiling point
        • Solid at room temperature.
        • Transfer of electrons between atoms.
      • Covalent
        • Between two non-metals
        • Share of electrons between atoms
        • Definite shape
        • low melting point
        • low boiling point
        • liquid or gaseous at room temperature
    • Structure
      • Metals
        • delocalised electrons
          • allows conduction of electricity
        • layers
        • soft
      • Giant Covalent
        • High melting and boiling points
        • Insoluble in water
        • Hard and do not conduct electricity (except graphite)
        • Huge network of atoms held together by covalent bonds
      • Giant Ionic Lattice
        • Strong electrostatic forces holding oppositely charged ions together.
        • High melting and boiling point
        • regular arrangement of ions
        • Only conducts electricity when molten or dissolved
          • Ions need to be free to move
      • Simple Molecule
        • Covalently bonded atoms
          • 1 molecule
  • Liquids evaporate into a gas when they reach a boiling point(*c)
    • Solids melt into a liquid when they reach a melting point(*c)
    • Gases condense in to liquids
      • Liquids freeze to become solids

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