C2 - atomic structure and bonding

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  • Created by: kwright17
  • Created on: 27-02-16 20:19
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  • C2 - Atomic Structure bonding and properties
    • Element : A substance that contains only atoms with the same atomic number
    • Atom: The smallest part of an element that can exist.
    • Atomic number: How much protons / electrons an atom has.
    • Mass number: The number of protons and neutrons
    • Ionic compounds
      • Ion = charged particles that are either positive or negative.
      • Group 1 metals form +1 ions because they need to lose an electron which makes them positively charged.
      • Cations : Sodium, Magnesium, Iron, Copper.
        • Anions: Chloride, Sulphate, Carbonate, Oxide.
      • Metal + Non Metal
      • Ionic Lattices have high melting points and boiling points.
        • Ionic lattices conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water
          • These often form crystals with regular arrangements of ions
            • These properties are due to the strong electrostatic forces of attraction.
          • These properties are due to the strong electrostatic forces of attraction.
      • Ionic lattices conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water
        • These often form crystals with regular arrangements of ions
      • Inside metals
        • Solid at room temperature. Good conductors of electricity and heat. High melting point. Malleable. Strong. Dense.
        • Metals  form metallic bonds
    • Covalent molecules
      • Non metal + Non Metal
      • C2 - Atomic Structure bonding and properties
        • Element : A substance that contains only atoms with the same atomic number
        • Atom: The smallest part of an element that can exist.
        • Atomic number: How much protons / electrons an atom has.
        • Mass number: The number of protons and neutrons
        • Ionic compounds
          • Ion = charged particles that are either positive or negative.
          • Group 1 metals form +1 ions because they need to lose an electron which makes them positively charged.
          • Cations : Sodium, Magnesium, Iron, Copper.
            • Anions: Chloride, Sulphate, Carbonate, Oxide.
          • Metal + Non Metal
          • Ionic Lattices have high melting points and boiling points.
          • Inside metals
            • Solid at room temperature. Good conductors of electricity and heat. High melting point. Malleable. Strong. Dense.
            • Metals  form metallic bonds
        • Low melting and boiling points - due to weak intermolecular forces.
        • The stronger the intermolecular force the more energy is needed to break them. hence the higher the melting point.
        • Do not conduct electricity
      • STRONG - a lot of energy is needed to break them
      • Giant covalent Molecules
        • Most non metals form covalent bonds that form molecules.
          • Some form long networks of covalent bonds.
        • Diamonds, Silicon Dioxide, Graphite
          • Diamond does not conduct electricity because it doesn't have a free delocalised electron
            • Graphite has delocalised electrons allowing it to create an electric charge.
          • Graphite is slippery because the intermolecular forces between layers are weak and slides over one another.
        • Allotrope: different forms on the same element in the same physical state. Diamond and Graphite are both allotropes of carbon.

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