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  • Created by: mhamaia21
  • Created on: 21-01-15 19:15
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    • The Atmosphere
      • 78%nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon and other noble gases, small amounts of water vapour carbon dioxide and other gases.
      • Stage 1 - Volcanic activity added carbon dioxide and water vapour.
      • Stage 2 - Eath cooled, water vapour condensed to form oceans.
      • Stage 3 - Simple photosynthetic organisms evolved, adding oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.
      • Stage 4 - Some carbon dioxide was removed by dissolving into oceans and thus forming sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels.
    • Pollutants in the Air
      • Carbon dioxide, harmful to environment, green house gas traps heat
      • Nitrogen oxides, harmful to environment and humans, cause acid rain and breathing problems, worsen asthma
      • Sulfur dioxide, harmful to environment causes acid rain
      • Particulates, harmful to environment and humans, dirty, worsen lung infections and asthma if inhaled
      • Carbon monoxide, harmful to humans, prevents blood carrying oxygen, fatal
      • Can harm indirectly too, acid rain makes rivers acidic, affecting food chains  and natural resources.
      • Pollutants are measured by concentration, these must be repeated as it may change depending on traffic and weather.
    • Combustion
      • When a fuel reacts with oxygen and energy is released, oxidation reaction.
      • Complete combustion occurs when there is enough oxygen for fuel to burn completely.
      • Petrol, diesel and fuel oil are mostly hydrocarbons
      • Incomplete combustion occurs when fuel is burned with not enough oxygen present.
        • Occurs in car engines, as coal contains sulfur, sulfur dioxide is also released.
    • Formation of NOx gases
      • High temperatures in car engine causes nitrogen in atmosphere to react with oxygen.
        • The nitrogen monoxide is then oxidised to produces nitrogen dioxide
    • Effects of pollutants
      • Particulate carbon is deposited on buildings making them dirty.
      • Carbon dioxide is removed by photosynthesis, and dissolved in rain and sea water to react with other chemicals.
      • Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, contributes to global warming.
      • Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide react with water to produce acid rain, damaging trees, corroding metal, changing pH of rivers causing organisms to die.
        • Burning sulfur in oxygen and dissolving gas in water forms a strongly acidic solution.
    • Reducing power station pollution
      • Use less electricity
      • Remove sulfur and toxic chemicals from gas, coal and oil prior burning
      • Use renewable sources, solar, wind and hydroelectric energy
      • Wet scrubbing flue gases with sea water or calcium oxide spray to remove sulfur dioxide.
    • Reducing car pollution
      • Use low sulfur fuel in modern fuel efficient cars.
      • Legal limits for exhaust emissions, MOT
      • Public transport instead.
      • Catalytic converters
      • Electric cars from biofuels, but they take up a lot of farm land.


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