C1 part A

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  • C1 A
    • Atoms and Elements
      • Atoms
        • A small nucleus surrounded by electrons
          • No. of protons = No. of Electrons
            • An equal charge
      • Elements
        • One type of atom only
    • The periodic table
      • Elements represented by symbols
        • E.g. Carbon=C, Oxygen=O
      • Puts elements with similar properties together
        • Columns = Groups
          • Same No. of electrons in outer shell
          • Elements react in a similar way
    • Electron Shells
      • Electrons always occupy shells
        • 1st shell=2, 2nd shell=8, 3rd shell=8 etc.
        • Elements want full electron shells
    • Compounds
      • Atoms join together to make compounds
        • Elements give away or share electrons to bond
    • Balancing equations
      • Atoms are lost or made in reactions
      • Get the same amount of each element on both sides
    • Limestone
      • Limestone is mainly Calcium Carbonate
        • Thermal decomposition
          • Calcium carbonate = calcium oxide + carbon dioxide
        • Reaction with an acid
          • Calcium carbonate + sulfuric acid = calcium sulphate + carbon dioxide + water
        • Calcium oxide
          • Reaction with water
            • Calcium oxide + water = calcium hydroxide
              • Calcium hydroxide + carbon dioxide = calcium carbonate + water
      • Using limestone
        • Quarrying
          • Ruins landscape
          • Creates pollution
        • Used to make houses, roads and ingredients in paint and dyes
          • Concrete/Cement
            • Very quick and cheap
            • Widely availabe
    • Extraction of metals
      • Ores contain metal
        • Metals are extracted by reduction
          • Some with carbon
          • Have to be extracted by an element which is more reactive
        • Some extracted by electrolysis
          • E.g. Copper
            • Is purified
          • Extract copper from a solution using a displacement reaction
      • Bad for environment
        • Recycling metals is important
    • Alloys
      • 2 metals together
        • Stronger and harder
          • Atoms are different sizes
    • Fractional distillation
      • Crude oil
        • Fractional distillation tower
          • Split into individual elements by condensation at different levels
        • Used as a fuel
          • Bad for the environment
            • Oil spills
            • Global warming
            • Acid rain
          • Running out
            • Need new power source
  • A formula shows what atoms are in a compund
    • Compounds
      • Atoms join together to make compounds
        • Elements give away or share electrons to bond
    • E.g. C02

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