C1 chemisty

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  • C1
    • Making Crude oil useful
      • Fossil fuels
        • Natural gas
        • Crude oil
          • A mixture of many hydrocarbons
            • Molecule containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms
            • have different boiling points
              • Separated easily into different fractions using heating
                • FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION
                  • Intermolecular forces broken
                    • Small molecules
                      • Small forces of attraction
                        • Low boiling point
                          • Fractions rise to top of column
                      • Easy to break
                        • Low boiling point
                          • Fractions rise to top of column
                    • Large molecules
                      • Stronger forces of attraction
                      • Harder to break
                        • High boiling point
                          • Stronger forces of attraction
                          • Fractions condense at bottom of column
                        • More energy required
                  • Fractions condense at different levels of the column and can be collected
                  • Top: cool
                  • Bottom: hot
            • CRACKING
              • Converts larger alkane molecules into smaller more useful alkene and alkane molecules
                • Alkanes
                  • Saturated
                    • Single covalent bonds
                  • CnH2n+2
                  • 1. Meth...
                    • Alkenes
                      • Un-saturated
                        • Double covalent bond between 2 carbon atoms
                      • React with bromine water
                        • Colourless
                      • CnH2n
                    • 2. Eth...
                      • 3. Prop...
                    • 4. But...
                    • 5. Pent...
                    • 6. Hex...
                      • 7. Hept...
                    • 8. Oct...
                • Alkenes
                  • Un-saturated
                    • Double covalent bond between 2 carbon atoms
                  • React with bromine water
                    • Colourless
                  • CnH2n
                • HT
                  • There is not enough petrol to meet demand, cracking is used to convert other fractions to make more profit
            • Carbon = 4 bonds  and hydrogen = 1 bond
        • Coal
        • Finite- limited supplies
        • Non-renewable
    • Using carbon fuels
      • Choosing a fuel
        • Energy value
        • Availability
        • Storage
        • Cost
        • Toxicity
        • Pollution
        • Ease of use
      • Burning fuels
        • Combustion- when fuels burn useful energy is released as heat
          • Complete combustion
            • Hydrocarbon + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water
              • HT
            • Blue flame
          • Incomplete combustion
            • fuel burns without sufficient oxygen
              • poor ventilation
              • gas appliance needs servicing
            • Hydrocarbon + oxygen = carbon monoxide + water
              • HT
                • 2CH4 + 3O2 (ARROW) 2C0 + 4H2O
            • Very little oxygen
              • Hydrocarbon + oxygen = carbon + water
            • Yellow flame
    • Making polymers
      • Designer polymers
        • polymers = plastics
        • Gore-Tex
      • Polymerisation
        • ALKENES
        • Alkenes made by cracking used to make monomers
        • High pressure  and catalyst
      • Addition polymerisation
        • HT
          • Involves the reaction of unsaturated monomer molecules
    • Clean air
      • Atmosphere gradually changed over billions of years
        • FORMATION OF THE EARTH
          • Early atmosphere contained ammonia and carbon dioxide
            • from volcanoes
            • temperature fell = water vapour in the atmosphere condensed forming oceans
              • evolution of plants meant photosynthesis started to reduce amounts of carbon dioxide and increase the amount of oxygen in the atomsphere
      • 78% Nitrogen
      • 21% oxygen
      • 0.035% carbon dioxide
      • air pollution
        • burning fossil fuels + incomplete combustion of car engine
      • Acid  rain
        • sulphur impurities produce sulphur dioxide which dissolves in water to produce acid rain
          • kill aquatic life and plants and erode stonework and corrode metals

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