GCSE: OCR gateway: C1: Clean air + Making polymers

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  • C1
    • Clean Air
      • What is in clean air?
        • 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, and of remaining 1%: 0.0035% CO2
        • Percentage of CO2 in air increased slightly due to: Deforestation + increased population
      • The Atmosphere
        • Gases escaping from interior of earth created the original atmosphere
          • Plants that could photosynthesis removed carbon dioxide and added oxygen
        • One theory is that the atmosphere was originally rich with water vapour and carbon dioxide
          • The vapour condensed to form oceans and the carbon dioxide dissolved into the water
            • The percentage of nitrogen slowly increased and due to it being unreactive little was removed
      • Pollution Control
        • Sulfur dioxide causes difficulties for people with asthma
          • It can dissolve into water to form acid rain that damages wildlife and sandstone buildings
        • A car is fitted with a catalytic converter that changes carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide
          • In a catalytic converter a reaction with: NITRIC OXIDE + CARBON MONOXIDE takes place on the surface of the catalyst.
            • 2CO + 2NO = N2 + 2CO2
    • Making Polymers
      • Hydrocarbons
        • Alkanes
          • Single covalent bonds
          • Saturated
          • Polymer
        • Alkenes
          • Double covalent bond between carbon atoms
            • Double bonds involve two shared pairs of electrons
          • Unsaturated
          • Monomer
        • Bromine is used to test for an alkene; orange to colourless
          • This forms a dibromo compound
      • Polymerisation
        • Where many alkene monomers react to give a polymer
        • Needs: High pressure + Catalyst
        • During reaction a long chain is made until it is stopped
          • Reaction causes the double bond in the monomer to break and each of the two carbon atoms form a new bond


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