18th and 19th Century

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  • c.1700-c.1900: 18th and 19th Century
    • Germ Theory and microbes
      • germs were produced by decaying matter= spontaneous generation
      • microscopes allowed images of bacteria/ germs
      • PASTEUR & KOCH
        • PASTEUR
          • showed spontaneous generation wrong
          • micobes caused decay
            • germs caused disease (couldn't prove)
        • KOCH
          • studied Pasteur's work and investigated microbes
            • proved pasteur was right
              • impacted prevention and cure of diseases
          • developed easy way to grow bacteria (on agar jelly)
            • easier to see on microscope
        • koch made bigger impact
          • broader discovery
          • inspired others
    • Improvements in hospitals care
      • new hospitals  opened (financed by charities & local councils)
      • hospitals are cleaner and organised
      • infirmaries set up
      • specialist hospitals set
      • nurses give more central role
    • Edward Jenner & Florence Nightingale (Key People Mindmap)
    • CASE STUDY: Cholera
    • Anaesthetics and antiseptics
      • anaesthetics
        • alcohol & opium used to ease pain
          • laughing gas used (failed ease pain)
            • ether made patients unconscious (side effects & flammable)
              • chloroform effective but side effects & difficult to dose
                • cocaine first local anaesthetic (addictive)
        • some worried of side effects
        • religion= pain inflicted for a reason
      • Lister inspired people to find methods to prevent infection
        • Aseptic surgery
          • wards cleaned thoroughly
          • surgeons & nurses wear sterilised clothing
          • sterilised instruments
      • surgery pain free & less of a struggle
    • Approaches to prevention of diseases
      • Pasteur was inspired by Jenner
        • developed animal vaccines
      • PUBLIC HEALTH ACT, 1875
        • provide clean water
        • provide sewers
        • provide public toilets
        • provide street lighting
        • provide public parks
        • inspect lodging houses
        • monitor building of new houses
        • check quality of food
        • employ public officer


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