C1.5 Products from oil

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  • C1.5 Products from oil
    • Cracking hydrocarbons
      • cracking
        • breaking down large hydrocarbon molecules
        • cracker - steel vessel which process takes place in
        • a heavy faction is heated to vaporise hydrocarbons
          • vapour is passed over the hot catalyst or mixed with steam
        • hydrocarbons crack as thermal decomposition takes place
      • alkene
        • unsaturated molecules
        • double bonds
        • react with orange bromine water
          • colourless
      • alkane
        • saturated
    • polymers from alkenes
      • plastics
        • monomers
          • small molecules that make polymers
        • polymers
          • made when monomers join together
            • polymerisation
        • ethane - C2H4
          • smallest unsaturated hydrocarbon
          • poly(ethane) - strong + transparent
          • plastic bas / drink bottles
        • Propane - C3H6
          • poly(propane) - strong + tough
          • carpets / milk crates
    • New polymers
      • light sensitive plasters
        • light sensitive polymer is used so that once lower layer is exposed to light adhesive becomes less sticky
      • hydrogels
        • polymer chains with few cross linking units
        • traps water
        • wound dressings
      • smart polymers
        • one that changes in response to changes around it
      • old polymers can be used for recycling
    • plastic waste
      • biodegradable - can be broken down by microorganisms
        • adding starch
        • takes up space needed for food
      • recycling
        • takes up space
        • hard to separate nto different types
    • ethanol
      • member of alcohols
      • C2H5OH
      • fermentation
        • sugar =yeast=> ethanol + carbon dioxide
        • enzymes break down sugar
      • used as a solvent
      • methylated spirit - mainly ethanol
      • hydration
        • ethane + steam => ethnol
        • energy is needed to heat the gases + create high pressure
        • continuous process + no waste is produced
        • ethene = non-renewable

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