• Created by: El
  • Created on: 28-02-20 15:01
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  • C15.4 Glass, ceramics and composites
    • Glass
      • Soda lime glass is made from sand, limestone and sodium carbonate
        • These are heated to 1500 degrees where they melt and react to form molten glass
        • As it cools it cools it turns into a solid, but the particles form a regular pattern, they are "frozen in place"
      • Many types of glass can be made by incorporating different materials to give it other properties
    • Ceramics
      • Made from clay e.g bricks, tiles, sinks, toilets
      • Hard but brittle materials that are electrical insulators and resistant to chemicals
        • A sharp blow can distort layers so that ions with like charges repel and the ceramic cracks
      • Made by moulding wet clay into shapes and heating them to 1000 degrees in a furnace
      • Clay contains comounds of metals and non metals with ionic bonding between ions and some covalent
      • The ions and atoms are arranged in giant structures with layers
        • When clay is wet the water molecules get between the layers making it slippery
        • When clay is heated in the furnace the water is driven out so strong bonds form
    • Composites
      • Made of two materials which make a material with improved properties for a use
        • One material binds together fibres or fragments of the other. This is called reinforcement
      • A composite of glass and ceramic is hard and tough as the glass melts between the crystals in the ceramic so cracks can't spread
      • Composites of ceramics with polymers as the binding agent are tough, flexible, waterproof and have low densities.
      • Concrete can be made more resistant to bending forces by setting it around a matrix of steel rods, forming reinforced concrete


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