C1.4 Crude oil and fuels

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  • C1.4 Crude oil and fuels
    • Fuel from crude oil
      • crude oil
        • mixture of different compounds
        • many are hydrocarbons
        • fractions
          • substances with similar boiling points
        • distillation
          • separates crude oil
      • alkanes
        • saturated
          • contain as many hydrogen atoms as possible
        • CnH(2n+2)
    • Fractional distillation
      • short chain molecule
        • flammable
        • low boiling point
        • easily turns into a gas
          • volatile
        • low viscosity - runny
      • long chain molecule
        • high viscosity - thick
        • high boiling point
        • smoky flame when burnt
      • properties of each fraction depend on size of molecules
      • temp decreases up the column
      • residue = thick sticky mixture of long chain hydrocarbons
      • diesel, kerosene, gasoline, petroleum gas
    • Burning Fuels
      • carbon dioxide and water is produced
      • sulfur impurities in fuels burn
        • forms sulfur dioxide
        • acid rain
      • changing conditions can change products
      • carbon monoxide formed
        • insufficient oxygen
      • Nitrogen oxide
        • high temps
    • Cleaner fuels
      • sulfur dioxide + nitrogen oxide
        • dissolve in droplets of water to form acid rain
      • CO2
        • greenhouse gas
    • Alternative fuels
      • Biofuels
        • made from plant / animal rpoducts
        • biodiesel
          • oils from plants
        • less harmful
        • areas of land could be used instead for farming
        • carbon neutral
      • Ethanol
        • fermentation of sugar
      • Hydrogen
        • burns well
        • clean flame
        • from water through electrolysis

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