C1.4 - Crude Oil and Fuels

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  • C1.4 - Crude Oil and Fuels
    • 4.1
      • Crude oil is a mixture of many different compounds.
      • Distillation can be used to separate mixtures of liquids.
      • Most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons - they only contain hydrogen and carbon.
      • Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons. They contain as many hydrogen atoms as possible in their molecules.
    • 4.2
      • Crude oil is separated into fractions using fractional distillation.
      • The properties of each fraction depend on the size of the hydrocarbon molecules.
      • Fractions with lower boiling points are less viscous and burn more easily.
    • 4.3
      • Burning hydrocarbons in plenty of air produces carbon dioxide and water.
      • Burning hydrocarbons in a limited supply of air may produce carbon monoxide and solid particles.
      • Any sulfur compounds in the fuel burn to produce sulfur dioxide.
      • Oxides  of nitrogen can be formed when fuels burn under extreme conditions.
    • 4.4
      • Many scientists believe that carbon dioxide from burning fuels causes global warming.
      • Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain.
      • Particulates cause global dimming.
      • Pollutants can be removed from waste gases after the fuel is burned.
      • Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are burned so less sulfur dioxide is given off.
    • 4.5
      • Biodiesel can be made from vegetable oils.
      • Biofuels are a renewable source of energy that could be used instead of fossil fuels.
      • There are advantages and disadvantages of using biodiesel.
      • Ethanol made from sugar is a biofuel.
      • Hydrogen is a potential fuel for the future.

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