C1.3 metals and their uses

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  • C1.3 metals and their uses
    • Extracting Metals
      • found in the earth's crust
      • Metal ore
        • contains enough metal to make it economic to extract
        • mined-concentrated before extraction
      • unreactive metals
        • found in their native state
      • reactivity series
        • best way to extract metal
        • oxide of metals below carbon in the series can be reduced by carbon to give the metal element
      • more reactive than carbon
        • cannot be extracted from their ores using carbon
    • Iron and steels
      • Iron is extracted by reducing it using carbon
        • inside a blast furnace
      • pure iron
        • too soft for it to be useful
      • steel
        • alloy from iron and other substances
      • low carbon steel
        • easily shaped
      • high carbon steel
        • very hard
      • stainless steels
        • resistant to corrosion
    • Aluminium an titanium
      • resist corrosion
      • electrolysis of molten aluminium oxide to extract
        • more reactive than carbon
      • expensive
        • extraction method
        • large amounts of energy
    • Extracting Copper
      • smelting
        • heating the ore
      • electrolysis
      • displacement using scrap iron
      • bioleaching
        • leachate = copper ions from waste
        • bacteria feed on low grade metal ores
        • scrap iron and electrolysis to extract copper from leachate
      • phytomining
        • plants absorb copper ions as they grow
        • Then burnt
        • metal extracted from ash
    • Useful metals
      • Transition metals
        • central block of elements in the periodic table
        • useful for building and making things
        • good conductors
        • strong
      • Copper
        • bronze
          • copper + tin
          • resistant to corrosion
          • strong
        • brass
          • copper + zinc
        • pipes - non corrosive
        • wires - good conductors
      • Aluminium
        • low density metal
        • many alloys available
      • Gold
        • alloying with copper
          • more hardwearing
        • jewellery
    • Metallic issues
      • metals in construction
        • benefits
          • strong
          • corrosion resistant
          • good conductor
        • drawbacks
          • iron and steel rust severely
          • pollutes earth
          • expensive

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