C1 Unit 2 - Rocks and Building Materials

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  • C1:2 - Rocks and Building Materials
    • Limestone
      • Made mainly of calcium carbonate
      • Can be used to make calcium carbonate
        • CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2
        • This is done through Thermal Decomposition
      • Used to make cement by heating it with clay in a kiln. This is ground up into fine powder.
        • Cement can be mixed with sand, aggregate and water to make concrete.
          • Concrete can be reinforced with steel (reinforced concrete) to be used in building structures.
      • The Limestone Cycle
        • Calcium Carbonate (limestone) CaCO3
          • Heat
            • Calcium oxide
              • Add water
                • Calcium hydroxide
                  • Add more water and filter
                    • Calcium hydroxide Solution (limewater)
                      • Add CO2
                        • Calcium Carbonate (limestone) CaCO3
                          • Heat
                            • Calcium oxide
                              • Add water
                                • Calcium hydroxide
                                  • Add more water and filter
                                    • Calcium hydroxide Solution (limewater)
                                      • Add CO2
      • Reactions of Carbonates
        • All metal Carbonates react in similar ways when heated or when reacted with acids
        • Metal carbonates decompose when heated to produce the metal oxide and carbon dioxide.
          • Example
            • zinc carbonate + heat -> zinc oxide + CO2
        • Carbonates react with acids to make  salt, water and carbon dioxide.
          • Example
            • Calcium carbonate + nitric acid -> calcium nitrate + water + carbon dioxide.
          • Limestone is damaged greatly by acid rain as the calcium carbonate in the rock reacts with acids in the rain.
        • Calcium hydroxide (lime water) turns cloudy when carbon dioxide is present.
          • This is because the Calcium Hydroxide reacts with the Carbon Dioxide to produce insoluable Calcium Carbonate

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