The Middle Ages

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  • c.1250-c.1500: The Middle Ages
    • Ideas: supernatural and religious
      • God made people ill when he was displeased
      • Disease sent as a test from God
      • Alignment of stars and planets caused disease
      • church taught ordinary people
        • set up universities= trained physicians
      • Discouraged dissection and scientific ideas
        • challenged authority
    • Rational explanations for disease
      • Four Humours taught the body was made of four liquids
        • If liquid unbalance= disease
        • Lead to Theory of opposites
      • Theory of opposites
        • Re-balancing the humours through the opposites
        • Developed by Galen
      • Miasma= disease caused by 'bad air'
    • Approaches to prevention and treatment
      • Treatments
        • Bloodletting= for in balance of humours
          • performed by barber-surgeons and non-medical persons
        • Purging= re-balance humours through vomiting
        • Traditional remedies= herbs sniffed, drank of bathed in
        • Religious treatments
          • Praying
          • Fasting
          • Pilgrimage
        • supernatural= magpie beak
      • prevention
        • religious & supernatural
          • chanting
          • living christian life
          • self punishment
          • lucky charms
        • Rational Methods
          • bathing
          • bleeding and purging
    • Approaches to caring for the sick
      • People who treated sick
        • Barber surgeons
        • care at home (women)
        • Physicians
          • observed patient's symptoms
          • used zodiac charts
          • treated patients themselves
        • Apothecaries
      • hospitals
        • people with infectious diseases not admitted
          • hospital was place of recuperation
            • food and rest given
        • run by the church
        • surroundings were kept clean
    • CASE STUDY: The Black Death
    • Galen and Hippocrates
  • Lead to Theory of opposites

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