C1.2 - Metals

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  • C1.2 - Metals
    • Structure and properties of metals
      • Metal crystals are made up of positive metal ions surrounded by a sea of negative elctrons
        • Free electrons form the outer shell of the metal atom
      • If a potential difference is supplied in a metal it means that the electrons will move, carrying an electrical current, meaning they are good conductors
        • Electroplating
          • Electrolysis is used to electroplate objects
            • This is useful for coating a cheaper metal with a more expensive one eg. copper with silver
              • The negative electrode is the object electroplated, positive electrode is the coating metal
                • The electrolyte should be a solution of the coating metal, nitrate or sulfate
      • Uses of metals
        • Car bodies are often made from steel because it is very strong and can be easily shaped
        • The filament in a light bulb is made from tungsten as it has a high melting poing
      • The layers of atoms also allow electrical currents to pass through
    • Extracting metals from their ores
      • Ores are naturally occuring rocks that contain metal enough compounds that make it worthwhile of extracting them
        • Most everyday metals are called Alloys which are mixtures
          • The earth's crust contains metals such as Gold, Iron oxide and Aluminium oxide but when they are found they usually contain other substances
        • The method used to extract the Ore depends on their reactivity
      • Aluminium and Titanium are metals that heave useful properties but are expensive to exctract
    • Purification of Copper
      • The extraction is done with reduction with carbon
        • It then has to be purified by electrolysis
          • Aluminium and titanium extraction and recycling
            • Aluminium and Titanium can't be extracted by reduction with carbon
              • Aluminium is more reactive than carbon, so the reaction doesn't work
                • Titanium forms titanium carbide with carbon, which makes the metal brittle
                  • Titanium is expensive to extract as it involves several stages
                • Aluminium is expensive to extract as it involves a lot of electrical energy
            • Aluminium is extensively recycled as less energy is needed to produce recycled aluminium
              • Recycling preserves limited resources and requires less energy, so it causes less damage to the environment

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