C1.1.1: Atoms

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  • Created by: 009143
  • Created on: 08-02-16 19:20
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  • C1.1.1: Atoms
    • All substances are made of atoms.
      • A substance that ismade of only one sort of atom is called an element.
        • There are about 100 different elements.
        • Elements areshown in the periodic table.
    • An atom contains three main parts:
      • Protons
        • The Nucleus
          • It contains protons and neutrons.
          • It’s in the middle of an atom.
          • Has a positive charge overall.
        • Are positively charged ( + )
        • It is the number of protons in a nucleus which decides what type of atom it is.
      • Electrons
        • Move around the nucleus
        • They occupy shells around the nucleus
        • Are negatively charged ( - )
      • Neutrons
        • The Nucleus
          • It contains protons and neutrons.
          • It’s in the middle of an atom.
          • Has a positive charge overall.
        • Have no charge - neutral
    • The total number of electrons in an atom is always the same as the number of protons in the nucleus.
      • This means there is no overall electrical charge in an atom.
      • If some electrons are added or removed, the atom becomes charged
        • The atom becomes an ion.
    • The number of protons in an atom of an element isits atomic number.
      • The sum of the protons andneutrons in an atom is its mass number.
    • Electrons occupy particular energy levels.
      • Each electron in an atom is at a particular energy level (in a particular shell).
      • The electrons in an atom occupy the lowestavailable energy levels (innermost available shells).

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