C11 Polymers

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  • C11 Polymers
    • Addition Polymerisation
      • Plastics are made of very large, covalently bonded molecules called polymers
      • The large polymer molecules are made when many monomers (small reactive molecules) join together
      • The reaction between alkene monomers to form a polymer is called addition polymerisation
      • In addition polymers, the repeating unit has the same atoms as the monomer, because when the C=C bond 'opens up' in polymerisation, no other molecule is formed.
    • Condensation Polymerisation
      • Condensation polymerisation usually involves a small molecule released in the reaction, as the polymer forms.
      • The monomers used to make the simplest condensation polymers are usually two different monomers, with two of the same functional groups on each monomer.
      • Polyesters are formed from the condensation polymerisation of diol and a dicarboxylic acid, with H2O given off in the reaction.
    • Natural Polymers
      • Simple carbohydrates (monosaccharides) polymerise to make polymers such as starch and cellulose
      • Proteins are polymers made from different amino acid monomers
      • Amino acids have an acidic and a basic functional group in the same molecule
      • Amino acids react together during condensation polymerisation to make polypeptides and proteins made of long sequences  of different monomers.
    • DNA
      • DNA is made up from monomers called nucleotides
      • The nucleotides are based on the sugar deoxyribose, bonded to a phosphate group and a base. There are four possible bases that bond to the sugar.
      • A DNA molecule consists of two polymer strands (with sugars bonded to phosphate groups) intertwined into a double helix

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