C1.1 Fundamental Ideas

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  • C1.1 Fundamental Ideas
    • All substances are made from atoms.
      • Atoms are made of protons and neutrons - in the nucleus - and electrons circling the outside
        • Number of Protons and Electrons are equal so atom is neutral - not charged.
          • An ION is an atom with a charge - atoms in the process of reacting.
            • Ions are positively charged when an atom loses electrons.
            • Ions are negatively charged when an atom gains electrons.
              • Because Electrons are negatively charged and Protons are positively charged.
                • Ions are positively charged when an atom loses electrons.
                • Charge causes the small numbers in  compounds because of the number of atoms need to cancel out charges.
      • Elements are one type of Atom: Compounds are two types of atoms chemically bonded together.
      • Most Materials are made from chemical reactions i.e. Water
        • Where the are 2 elements, the name of the compound ends in -ide
          • e.g. CuS - Copper Sulfide
        • Were there are 3 elements, with the last being Oxygen, The name of the compound ends with -ate.
          • e.g. CaCO? - Calcium  Carbonate
        • Metal + Water = Metal Oxide + Hydrogen Gas [H? (g)]
    • Periodic Table
      • Know symbols for common elements
        • H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca.
      • Atomic Mass: no. of Protons + Neutrons in the Nucleus of the atom.
        • To find number of Neutrons, subtract the Atomic Number from the Atomic Mass
          • e.g. Lithium is the Atomic Number 3, and its Atomic Mass is 7 so: Lithium has 3 Protons, 3 Electrons and 4 Neutrons
            • The Electronic Configuration of Lithium would be 2,1. Why?
              • 1st Shell of an atom = max. 2e-
                • 2nd Shell = max. 8e-
                  • 3rd Shell = max. 8e-
      • Atomic Number: no. of Protons (or Electrons) in the atom.
        • All atoms in the periodic table are in ascending order of atomic number.
        • Number of Protons and Electrons are equal so atom is neutral - not charged.
          • An ION is an atom with a charge - atoms in the process of reacting.
            • Ions are negatively charged when an atom gains electrons.
              • Because Electrons are negatively charged and Protons are positively charged.
                • Charge causes the small numbers in  compounds because of the number of atoms need to cancel out charges.
    • Groups are Vertical Columns, Periods are Horizontal Rows.
      • Group 0/8 are noble gasses. They are inert or unreactive because the have a full outermost shell making them stable.
      • Period 1 only has 2 elements: Hydrogen & Helium.
      • Group No. = No. of e- in outermost shell
        • Group 1: +1 (Metal)
          • Very Reactive because it's very easy to use 1e-
        • Group 2: +2 (Metal)
        • Group 3: +3 (Metal)
        • Group 7: -1 (Non-Metal)
        • Group 0/8: 0
          • Group 0/8 are noble gasses. They are inert or unreactive because the have a full outermost shell making them stable.
        • Group 6: -2 (Non-Metal)
        • Atoms of the same Group react the same way due to them having the same amount of e- in their outermost shell.
        • Group 5: -3 (Non-Metal)
        • Group 4: no charge (Non-metal)
      • Period No. = No. of Shells in Electronic Configuration
    • Bonding
      • Ionic
        • Ionic Bonding is the exchange of electrons between Metal and Non-Metal
        • Metals react with Non-metals because compounds have to be neutral.
        • Ionic bond between Sodium (Gp1) & Chlorine (Gp7)) makes Sodium Chloride.
      • Covalent
        • A Covalent bond is formed between non-metals (Groups 4-7)
        • Covalent bond between Carbon (Gp 4) & Oxygen (Gp 6) makes CO?

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