C1 Carbon chemistry

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  • C1 Carbon chemistry
    • Crude oil
      • Fossil fuels are a finite resource because they are being used up faster than they are being made
      • Crude oil can be seperated in fractional distillation because shorter chains of hydrocarbons have lower boiling points and 'exit' towards the top of the column
      • Transporting oil can cause problems like oil slicks which damage wildlife and there may be political problems with buy oil from unstable countries
      • Cracking turns large alkene molecules into smaller alkane molecules to match the supply with the demand
    • Clean air
      • The air is made up of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 0.035% carbon dioxide
      • Carbon dioxide changes very little because processes like photosynthesis and respiration keep it in balance. However, it has increases slightly due to deforestation and increases population
      • Gases escaping from the interior of the Earth formed the atmosphere through the degassing process (from volcanoes)
      • Catalytic converters change carbon monoxide and nitrous oxides from car exhausts into carbon dioxide and nitrogen
    • Polymers
      • Alkanes are saturated and have single bonds only, alkenes have at least one double bond and they are unsaturated. Bromine water reacts with alkenes to create a dibromo compound which is colourless
      • Additional polymerisation creates long chains of alkene monomers. The double bond in the monomer is used to bond with the carbon atom so the chain continues
      • Nylon is tough, lightweight and keeps out UV but it does not let sweat out. GORE-TEX is breathable which means it keeps water out but also lets sweat evaporate because the hole are the the right size
      • Polymers with strong bonds are stretchy because molecules slide over each other, strong forces made polymers rigid
    • Smells
      • Esters are made by adding alcohol to acid and heating them with a condenser which makes the reaction last longer
      • Perfumes must evaporate easily, be non-toxic, not react with water, not wash off easily and not irritate skin
      • Particles in perfumes must have sufficient kinetic energy to evaporate because bonds need to be broken. Attractions between water molecules are stronger than attractions between water and nail varnish molecules which means nail varnish is not removed with water
    • Paints
      • Paint is a colloid which means it has particles dispersed within a binding medium which are not dissolved and are too small to sink to the bottom
      • Emulsion paints dry when the water evaporates and oil forms a protective skin. Oil paints dry when solvents evaporate and oil oxidises
    • Carbon fuels
      • When choosing a fuel, the following need to be considered: energy value, availability, storage, cost, toxicity, pollution control, ease of use
      • Population is increasing which increases the need for more energy
      • Burning hydrocarbons in plenty of oxygen is complete combustion and carbon dioxide and water are produced
      • Burning hydrocarbon fuels in a lack of oxygen, is incomplete combustion and carbon monoxide or soot are produced with water
    • Cooking
      • Proteins molecules permanently denature which changes the texture of food. Carbohydrate's starch swells and rupture creating a digestible and softer texture
      • Baking powder (sodium hydrogencarbonate) decomposes down into sodium carbonate, carbon dioxide and water
      • Emulsifiers stop fat and water seperating because they have a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail

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