C1 Chemistry GCSE

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  • C1-Atomic Structure
    • Atoms
      • Elements
        • Substances that are made up of only one type of atom
      • Nucleus
        • Made up of protons and neutrons
          • Protons=+1 charge Electrons=-1 charge Neutron=0 charge
        • Protons mass=1 Electrons mass=1/200 Neutrons mass=1
        • Electrons on shells orbiting nucleus
          • 1st shell=2 electrons   2nd shell=8 electrons    3rd shell=8 electrons
          • Changing number of electrons creates ions
            • Ions are charged particles
    • Ions and isotopes
      • Ions are charged particles
      • Isotopes are elements with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
    • Separating mixtures
      • Crystallisation
        • Crystallisation is used to obtain a sample of pure salt from your solution e.g sodium chloride from salt water
        • Heating should be stopped when crystals start to form and then you should let rest of crystals come by natural evaporation
        • Heating should be stopped when crystals start to form and then you should let rest of crystals come by natural evaporation
      • Chromatography
        • Paper chromatography is used to separate a mixture of dyes in ink
        • 1.The paper is dotted with ink.2.It is then dipped in the solvent.3.The solvent soaks up the paper and the dyes begin to run.
        • Graphite pencil is used to mark lines because it doesn't separate
        • The more soluble a substance is, the further up the paper it will travel
      • Filtration
        • Filtration is used to separate substances that are insoluble in a particular solvent from those that are soluble in the solvent
        • Mixture of rock salt
        • 1. Mix rock salt with water to dissolve salt. 2. Filter out salt water so sand is gone. 3. Crystallise salt water to obtain salt crystals.
      • Distillation
        • Simple distillation
          • 1.A solution is heated and boiled to evaporate the solvent. 2. The vapour given off enters a condenser. 3. The hot vapour condenses back into a liquid and is collected in a beaker. 4. The dissolved solutes remain in the flask.
          • Simple distillation allows you to collect the solvent instead of letting it evaporate like in crystallisation
        • Fractional distillation
          • Fractional distillation is used to separate mixtures of miscible liquids
            • In fractional distillation a fractionating column is used
            • The temperatures in the fractionating column are hottest at the bottom and cooler at the top
            • Miscible liquids are liquids that dissolve into each other; mixing completely. They have different boiling points.
            • The substances will the lowest boiling points will rise up the fractionating column and into the condenser
    • Chemical equations
      • Products
        • The substances you start off with
      • Reactants
        • The products you end up with in the reaction
      • Hydrogen + Oxygen (reactants) ?  water (product)
        • e.g H2 + O2 ? 2H2O
      • State symbols
        • Aqueous(aq)
        • Liquid(l)
        • Solid(s)
        • Gas(g)
  • Atom are tiny particles
    • Made up of a tiny nucleus and electrons orbiting it
    • Atoms
      • Elements
        • Substances that are made up of only one type of atom
      • Nucleus
        • Made up of protons and neutrons
          • Protons=+1 charge Electrons=-1 charge Neutron=0 charge
        • Protons mass=1 Electrons mass=1/200 Neutrons mass=1
        • Electrons on shells orbiting nucleus
          • 1st shell=2 electrons   2nd shell=8 electrons    3rd shell=8 electrons
          • Changing number of electrons creates ions

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