Britain and the Industrial Revolution

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  • Britain and the Industrial Revolution
    • The change from the rural, farm oriented world was great. People made things at home or small workshops. This was called the 'Domestic System'. In the Industrial Revolution, thing were made in large quantities in factories.
    • Why did it happen?
      • Power
        • 1733- John Kaye- Flying Shuttle- Increased weaving speed
        • Water frame produced thread at great speed.
        • 1764- James Hardgreaves- Spinning Jenny- Spun several bobbins at once
        • 1787- Edmund Cartwright- Power loom- Increased weaving speed.
        • Steam in the iron industry- could pumup water out.
      • Entrepeneurs
        • Coal was not used, and charcoal was in short supply, so Abraham Darby I made 'Coke'- baked coal, which worked as well.
          • Power
            • 1733- John Kaye- Flying Shuttle- Increased weaving speed
            • Water frame produced thread at great speed.
            • 1764- James Hardgreaves- Spinning Jenny- Spun several bobbins at once
            • 1787- Edmund Cartwright- Power loom- Increased weaving speed.
            • Steam in the iron industry- could pumup water out.
        • Before the 18th century iron was made small-scale
        • James Watt- illiterate until 18- invented the steam engine in 1781, which led to the railway and trains.
      • Farming
        • Selective breeding made animals larger.
      • Transport
        • Wagons and stagecoaches traveled 3x as fast on Turnpike Trust roads.
        • Roads by Turnpike Trust. By 1830, there were over 1000 Turnpike Trusts, covering over 22000 miles of road.
          • Travellers paid tolls, which would maintain the road.
        • Also helped transport products.
          • As industry expanded, they needed more raw materials
            • Industry and transport go hand in hand.
        • Canals linked cities. Barges were faster and cheaper than wagons
        • Steamships were a lot faster than pre-mid- 19th century transport. It could also import and export goods from far away places
          • Bigger, carried more, people and goods. Already had a good shipping force, but steamships were faster
            • Use of coal helped coal industry flourish
        • New transport- steam engine.
          • Faster transportation of goods and people, and linked towns together
        • Railways were cheaper, so horses and canals declined. Could deliver freight and fresh food easily. Coal provided lots of jobs
      • Raw materials
        • Britain had many raw materials, so there was no need to import.
          • Lots of iron, timber, coal, tin, clay, and limestone
          • Free trade within empire
      • Empire
        • Provided raw materials and new markets
          • Without this, Britain would have struggled and fallen behind

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