Functions of ingredient

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  • Functions of ingredients
    • Yeast
      • Produces CO2 which makes the bread rise
    • Salt
      • Adds flavour and controls the action of the yeast
      • strengthens the gluten
    • Sugar
      • Provides energy for the yeast to respire and ferment
    • Strong plain flour
      • The high gluten content makes the dough more stretchy to hold the CO2
    • Warm water
      • Activates the yeast and provides the optimum temperature
        • Optimum temperature = 37oC for yeast
        • If too hot the yeast will be destroyed
      • Bind the dry ingredients together
    • Ascorbic Acid
      • Vitamin C e.g lemon juice
      • Speeds up the fermentaion of yeast
    • Bread
      • Faults which occur in bread making
        • Loaf has not risen well/ It has a heavy texture
          • Incorrect flour used - low gluten content
          • Too much salt used and has effected the yeast
          • Yeast killed before the bread has been baked- water is too hot
          • Insufficient kneading or proving
          • Dough has been over fermented, resulting in a break down of the gas pockets in the dough
          • insufficient liquid resulting in dough which is too stiff
        • Uneven texture with large holes
          • Dough not knocked back properly
          • Dough left uncovered during rising
        • Dough collapse when put in oven
          • Over-proving
        • Crust breaks away from loaf
          • Under - proving
          • Dough surface dried out during proving
          • Oven is too hot


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