- Breach of Duty
- Blyth v Birmingham Waterworks - the defendant breaches his duty if he fails to reach the standard of the reasonable man.
- Roe v Minister of Health - in order to breach your duty the risk of breach must be foreseeable.
- Ordinary man - Wells v Cooper - should be judged against the standard of a reasonably competent person doing the same thing.
- The learner - Nettleship v Weston - the standard of the learner is the same as the person doing the job.
- The professional - Bolam - What would the reasonable professional have done?
- The young - Mullin v Richard - What would an ordinary and reasonable child of the same age do?