Bonding Chemistry

This is a maindmap all to do with Bonding in chemsitry C2. 

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  • Bonding C2
    • Ionic Bonding
      • Ionic bonding is when a non-metal element reacts with a metal element to give one or more electrons . This happened to make them have a full outer shell of electrons (8).
        • The Metal Atoms loose electrons and become positive ions.
        • The Non-metal atoms gain electrons and become negative ions
        • For example: A sodium atom loses an electron to form a sodium ion with a 1+ charge. A chlorine atom then gains the electron to form a chlorine ion with a 1- charge
      • The opposite charged ions are electrostacitcaly attracted
      • Ionic bonds have high melting and boiling points
      • Ionic compounds can conduct electricity ONLY if the ions are free to carry the electric current.
        • E.g: Solid sodium chloride does not conduct electricity as the ions cannot move, but dissolved in water or molten, it can conduct electricity.
    • Covalent Bonding
      • Covalent bonding is when two elements share electrons in order to have a full outer shell
        • Covalent Bonds share electrons to achieve noble gas electronic structures which are stable
        • outer electron shells overlap
        • An oxygen atom shares two electrons with another oxygen atom to make a DOUBLE BOND; two shared electrons
      • the nuclei of both atoms involved in a covalent bond are positively charged and the electrons involved are attracted to the nuclei, and so remain a fixed distance apart from each nucleus. this distance is called the bond length.
      • Covalent bonds have low boiling and melting points because they have weak attractions between the molecules these are called  intermolecular  forces
        • Covalent bonds are strong but they only exist between the atoms in the molecule
      • cannot dissolve in water
      • Cannot conduct electricity because there are no particles free to move
    • Metallic  Bonding involves charged metal nuclei  and a sea of delocalised electrons
      • They are malleable as they can slide over each other
  • Ionic Bonding
    • Ionic bonding is when a non-metal element reacts with a metal element to give one or more electrons . This happened to make them have a full outer shell of electrons (8).
      • The Metal Atoms loose electrons and become positive ions.
      • The Non-metal atoms gain electrons and become negative ions
      • For example: A sodium atom loses an electron to form a sodium ion with a 1+ charge. A chlorine atom then gains the electron to form a chlorine ion with a 1- charge
    • The opposite charged ions are electrostacitcaly attracted
    • Ionic bonds have high melting and boiling points
    • Ionic compounds can conduct electricity ONLY if the ions are free to carry the electric current.
      • E.g: Solid sodium chloride does not conduct electricity as the ions cannot move, but dissolved in water or molten, it can conduct electricity.

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nevaanna20

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so useful thanks a lot

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