bonding AS-level unit 1 AQA

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  • bonding
    • ionic boning
      • ionic  bonding is strong elctrostatic force of attraction between oppositely-charged ions
      • it happens between metal and non-metal ions
        • the metal ion is charged positively
        • the non-metal ion is charged  negatively
      • an atom becomes charged if it gains or loses an electron
        • if an atom loses one or more  electrons, it becomes positively charged
        • if an atom gains one or more electron, it becomes negatively charged
    • covalent bonding
      • covalent  bonds are a shared PAIR  of electron between two atoms
        • this type of bonding happens between 2 non-metal atoms e.g. H2O (water)
      • sometimes  like in NH4 a dative covalent bond is needed;
        • a dative covalent bond is a covalent bond  where both of the shared electrons are donated from one of the atoms
    • metallic bondinng
      • metallic bonding is electrostatic force of attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons
      • if you are asked in an exam to draw a lattice of metallic bonded ions, you must always draw at least 6 positive ions and the corrosponding number of free electron, or you won't get the marks
    • intermolecular forces
      • polar bonds
        • sometimes covalent bonds are polar; this means the shared pair of electrons are not shared equally
          • one atom will attract the pair of electrons  more than the other atom
            • this depends on the electronegativity of the atoms involved
      • there are three different types of IMF's
        • hydrogen bonding (this is the strongest)
        • dipole - dipole
        • Van Der Waals (this is the weakest IMF)
        • if you  are given a compound in the exam and are asked to find out what IMFs work on it, follow this flow chart
          • does it use...
            • ionic bonding
            • metallic bonding
            • covalent bonding
              • does it have polar bonds ?
                • no? e.g.Cl2
                  • Van  Der Waals only
                • yes? e.g.Cl2
                  • dos it contain a  F, Cl, Br  or an I bonded to a hydrogen ?
                    • no? e.g. HCl
                      • Van Der Waals and Dipole- Dipole bondings
                    • yes? e.g. water
                      • Hydrogen bong, dipole-dipole and Van Der Waals
  • electronegativity is the power of an atom to attract the electron density (the shared pair of electrons) to itself  in a covalent bond


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