C2 - Bonding Structure and Properties of Matter

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  • Bonding Structure and Properties of Matter
    • Ions
      • a charged particle
      • produced when an atom gains or looses electrons to gain a full outer shell
      • Group 1 = 1+ Group 2 = 2+ Group 6 = 2- Group 7 = 1-
      • Metals form +ions
      • Non-metals form -ions
    • Polymers
      • Long chains of repeating units
      • strong covalent bonds
      • draw short repeating sections (repeating unit
      • intermolecular forces
        • larger than ones in simple covalent molecules
        • weaker than ionic / covalent so they have lower boiling and melting points
      • don't conduct electricity
      • solid at room temperature
    • Ionic Compounds
      • have a giant ionic lattice
        • strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions in all directions
        • E.g NaCl, (sodium chloride / table salt)
      • Properties
        • high melting and boiling points
        • Cant conduct when solid but can when melted due to free moving electrons
        • Dissolve easily in water
      • Look at charges to find the formula of the compound
    • Covalent Bonding
      • non-metals sharing pairs of electrons
      • very strong electrostatic forces
      • shown in overlapping dot and cross diagrams or displayed formulas
    • Ionic Bonding
      • between metal and non-metal
      • show in dot and crass diagrams
      • metal looses electrons and becomes a +ion
      • non-metal gains electron and becomes -ion
    • Metallic Bonding
      • Giant structure
      • electrostatic attraction between the +metal ions and shared -electrons are strong
      • very strong


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