Bonding, Structure and Properties of Matter

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  • Bonding, Structure and Properties of Matter
    • Covalent Bonding
      • When non-metal atoms bond together, they share electrons. This make a Covalent Bond.
      • Covalent Bonding happens in compounds of non-metals and non-metal elements.
      • Dot and cross diagrams show the bonding in covalent compounds.
        • Electrons that are drawn in the overlap between the outer orbitals are shared between those atoms.
    • Formation of Ions
      • Ions are charged particles.
        • Atoms lose or gain electrons (to form ions), they are trying to get a full outer shell.
      • When metals form ions, they lose electrons from the outer shell to form positive Ions. When non-metals form ions they gain electrons into their outer shell to form negative ions.
      • The number of electrons lost or gained is the same as the charge on the ion. For example, if 2 electrons are lost the charge is 2+.
      • Ionic Bonding
        • When a metal and a non-metal react together, the metal atom loses electrons and the non-metal gains these electrons.
          • These oppositely charged ions are strongly attracted to one another by electrostatic forces.
        • Dot and Cross Diagrams show the arrangement of electrons in an atom or an ion.
          • Each electron is represented by a dot or a cross.
    • Simple Molecular Substances
      • Simple Molecular Substances are made up of molecules containing a few atoms joined together by covalent bonds.
      • Properties of Simple Molecular Substances.
        • The forces of attraction between these molecules are very weak.
        • Melting and boiling points are very low.
        • They don't conduct electricity because they aren't charged.
        • Most molecular substances are gases or liquids at room temperature.


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