Structure and Bonding

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  • Bonding + Structure
    • Ionic Compounds
      • Ionic bonding
        • Electrostatic forces of attraction
        • Between positively and negatively charged ions
        • Example:    Li+ S2- = Li2S
      • Properties
        • Conduct when put in water
          • The charged ions in a solid structure can't move around
          • When put in a liquid they can move around and carry charge
        • High melting + boiling point
          • Strong electrostatic forces between oppositely charge ions
            • Vast amount of heat energy needed to overcome them
          • Vast amount of heat energy needed to overcome them
        • Strong covalent bonds between atoms in a small molecule
        • Strong covalent bonds between atoms in a small molecule.
      • Between a metal and a non - metal
    • Covalent Bonding
      • Diagrams
        • Draw outer electron shell
        • Use group number
      • Examples
        • Simple molecules - water
        • Giant covalent structures - diamond
        • Large molecules in chains - polymers
      • With a non - metal and a non - metal
      • Small covalent molecules
        • Don't conduct electricity
          • Small molecules have no overall charge
          • Can't carry electric charge
        • Low melting and boiling points
          • Weak intermolecular forces between molecules
          • Not a lot of heat energy to overcome
      • Giant covalent molecules
        • High melting and boiling point
          • Huge network of covalent bonds
          • Large amount of heat energy to overcome
          • Diamond
            • Very hard
              • Carbon atoms bonded to four others
              • Many strong covalent bonds
            • Doesn't conduct
              • No delocalised electrons
              • All electrons are bonded
          • Graphite
            • Soft
              • Giant layers of atoms can slide over each other easily
              • Weak intermolecular forces between the layers
                • Giant layers of atoms can slide over each other easily
            • Conduct electricity
              • Delocalised electrons are free to move around
              • Four outer electrons of carbon are bonded and one is delocalised
        • Carbon
          • Diamond
            • Very hard
              • Carbon atoms bonded to four others
              • Many strong covalent bonds
            • Doesn't conduct
              • No delocalised electrons
              • All electrons are bonded
          • Graphite
            • Soft
              • Weak intermolecular forces between the layers
              • Conduct electricity
                • Delocalised electrons are free to move around
                • Four outer electrons of carbon are bonded and one is delocalised
            • Fullerenes
              • Huge carbon molecules on hexagon rings
      • Carbon
        • Fullerenes
          • Huge carbon molecules on hexagon rings
      • Metals + Alloys
        • Metallic bonding
          • Electrostatic attraction between positively charged metal ions and delocalised electrons
          • Metal ions held together by electrons from outermost shell
            • The positive ions produced are held together by strong electrostatic forces
              • The electrons in the metals are free to move around
          • Diagram
        • Alloys are harder than pure metals
          • Alloys have different sizes of atoms
          • Makes it harder to slide over each other because the rows of atoms are distorted
        • Alloys can conduct and metals can't
          • Alloys have a sea of delocalised electrons that carry charge around
          • They can carry electrical and thermal energy

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