Bonding (Ionic, Covalent, Metallic)

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  • Created by: Ali
  • Created on: 21-09-20 17:54
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  • Bonding
    • Covalent Compounds
      • Covalent Bonding
        • 2 atoms share electrons to complete a full outer shell
        • Can be single, double or triple bonded
      • 2 non-metals
      • Simple Covalent Molecules
        • Properties & Structure
          • Low boiling / melting point
            • Inter-molecular forces holding molecules together are weak (Van der Waals)
          • Don't conduct electricity
            • no free charge carriers
          • Soluble / Insoluble in water
            • Depends on the polarity of the atoms; the more polar, the more soluble
      • Giant Covalent Molecules
        • Macro-molecular
        • Diamond
          • Properties
            • High melting Point (Sublimes at 3900+ K)
            • Extremely Hard (Hardest known substance)
              • Used in saws and Drills
            • Vibrations travel easily through stiff lattice, so its a good thermal conductor
            • Can't conduct electricity(Electrons held in localized bonds)
            • Doesn't dissolve in any solvent. (Non polar)
          • Structure
            • Each carbon atom covalently bonded to 4 other carbon atoms; Tetrahedral shape
        • Graphite
          • Structure & Properties
            • Low density
              • Good for sport equipment (storng / Lightweight)
              • Layers are relatively far apart
            • Graphite is insoluble
              • Strong Covalent Bonds
            • High melting point (sublimes over 3900K)
              • Strong Covalent Bonds
            • Electrical conductor
              • The fourth outer electron of each carbon is localized
            • Layers easily broken
              • Good for lubricants and pencisl
              • Weak bonds between layers are easily broken
      • Dative Covalent Bonding
        • One atom provides both electrons that are shared
    • Ionic Compounds
      • Structure & Properties
        • High Boiling Point & Melting Point
          • Giant Ionic Lattice:- The oppositely charged ions in a giant ionic lattice are held together by strong ionic bonds (electrostatic forces of attraction) in a huge three-dimensional structure.
        • Dissolve in water
        • Conduct electricty when molten / dissolved
          • Charged ions can't move in the lattice
          • Ions can move when dissolved or molten
            • Charged ions can't move in the lattice
      • Metal + Non Metal
      • Ionic Bonding
        • Electron transfers from a metal to a non-metal; causes a charge between two atoms
        • Electrostatic Attraction holds to atoms together
          • Overall charge of ionic compound is 0
    • Metals / Alloys
      • Properties
        • High Boiling Point
          • The more delocalised electrons, the higher the boiling point
        • Conducts Electricity
          • Electrons Free to move
        • Tend not to dissolve expect in liquid metals
          • due to the strength of the attraction between the metal ions and the electrons
        • Malleable and Ductile
          • no direct bonds between metal ions, so they can slide over each other.
      • Metallic Bonding
        • Electrostatic Attraction between the delocalised electrons and the positive ions
      • Structure
        • Giant Metallic Lattice:- positive metal ions surrounded by a ‘sea’ of Delocalised Electrons
      • Metals

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