Bonding and structure

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  • Topic 2
    • Ionic bonding
      • Metals + non-metals
      • Make giant lattice structures
      • Strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charges ions
      • Possitive ions are bigger than negative ions
      • Going down a group the ionic radii increases
      • Evidence for ions
        • Electron density maps show the separate ions
        • Force will cause ions to move and repel to form seperate layers
      • Ionic compounds physical properties
        • High melting points
        • Non-conductor of electricity when solid- tightly packed together
        • Conductor of electricity when molten- ions are free to move
    • Covalent bonding
      • Caused by electrostatic attraction between shared pairs of electrons
      • Properties of covalent bonding
        • Allotropes of carbon like diamond and graphite have extremely high melting points
      • Multiple bonds
        • Greater forces of attractions
        • Shorter bond length
        • Greater bond strength
      • Dative covalent bonds
        • Shared pair of electrons both come from only one of the atoms
        • Arrows from one atom to the other shows a dative bond
    • Shape of molecules
      • Linear- BP2 LP0 180 degrees
      • Trigonal planar- BP3 LP0 120 degrees
      • Tetrahedral- BP4 LP0 109.5 degrees
      • Trigonal pyramidal- BP3 LP1 107 degrees
      • Bent- BP2 LP2 104.5 degrees
      • Trigonal Bipyramidial- BP5 LP0 120 and 90 degrees
      • Octahedral- BP6 LP0 90 degrees
    • Electronegativity and intermediate bonding
      • Tendency of an atom in a covalent bond to attract electrons in a covalent bond to itself
        • Symetrical molecules are not polar
        • >1.7 pauling scale = ionic- anything below is covalent
        • Fluorine is the most electronegative
    • Metallic bonding
      • Electrostatic forces of attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons
      • The smaller the ions the stronger the metallic bond
      • The more protons the stronger the bond
      • The more delocalised electrons the stronger the bond
      • Properties of metallic bonds
        • Brittle due to their layered structure
        • Malleable due to layers can slde over each other


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