• Created by: Amz4276
  • Created on: 12-06-19 19:20
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  • Structure and Bonding
    • States of Matter
      • Liquid
        • Changes shape
        • Volume cant change
        • Cant compress
      • Solid
        • Fixed shape
        • Volume cant change
        • Cant comprss
      • Gas
        • Changes shape
        • Volume can change
        • Can compress
    • Ionic bonding
      • Formed when atoms join together as a result of gaining or losing electrons.They are usually formed between metals and non metals.
    • Giant Ionic Lattice
      • A regular arrangement of positive and negative ions.
      • Ionic compounds have a high melting and boiling point point because the bonds between the ions are very strong. So more heat is needed to break the bonds so the ions can move more easily.
    • simple covalent bonding
      • Formed between metals and non metals.
      • Its not always passable for an electron to be transferred.
      • Gas or liquids in room temperature.
      • Simple covalent molecules.
        • Low boiling and melting points.
        • Weak inter molecular forces
        • Strong covalent bonds
      • Giant Covalent Molecules
        • giant covalent substances, which contain many atoms joined by covalent bonds
        • Silicon dioxide(often called silica) is the main compound found in sand. It is an example of a substance with a giant covalent structure. It contains many silicon and oxygen atoms. All the atoms in its structure are linked to each other by strong covalent bonds. The atoms are joined to each other in a regular arrangement, forming a giant covalent structure. There is no set number of atoms joined together in this type of structure.
        • Conduction of electricityMost substances with giant covalent structures have no charged particles that are free to move. This means that most cannot conduct electricity. Graphite, a form of carbon which can conduct electricity, is an exception.
        • They have high boiling points, high melting points and they cannot conduct electricity.
    • Dimond
      • Structure and bonding
        • Diamond is a giant covalent structure in which:each carbon atom is joined to four other carbon atoms by strong covalent bondsthe carbon atoms form a regular tetrahedral network structurethere are no free electrons
        • Diamond does not conduct electricity because it has no charged particles that are free to move.
    • Graphite
      • Structure and bonding
        • Graphite has a giant covalent structure in which:each carbon atom forms three covalent bonds with other carbon atoms the carbon atoms form layers of hexagonal rings there are no covalent bonds between the layers .
        • Graphite does conduct electricity because it has delocalised electrons which move between the layers.
      • Uses
        • Graphite has delocalised electrons, just like metals. These electrons are free to move between the layers in graphite, so graphite can conduct electricity. This makes graphite useful for electrodes in batteries and for electrolysis.The forces between the layers in graphite are weak. This means that the layers can slide over each other. This makes graphite slippery, so it is useful as a lubricant.
    • Nanotubes
      • A nanotube is like a layer of graphene, rolled into a cylinder. The length of a nanotube is very long compared to its width, so nanotubes have high length to diameter ratios. Nanotubes are strong and resist being stretched. Nanotubes are strong and conduct electricity because they have delocalised electrons.The properties make nanotubes useful for nanotechnology, electronics and specialised materials.


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